International network for natural sciences – research journal
  • mendeley icon
  • linkedin icon
  • google plus icon
  • twitter icon
  • google scholar icon
  • facebook icon

Wsp gene based detection and characterization of Wolbachia in indigenous Drosophila

By: Muhammad Sajjad Sarwar, Nusrat Jahan, Falak Batool, Bushra Kalim

Key Words: Detection, Drosophila, Pakistan, Wolbachia, Wolbachia surface protein (wsp)

J. Bio. Env. Sci. 10(4), 142-149, April 2017.


Wolbachia is a genus of intracellular symbiotic bacteria, vertically transmitted in more than 60% insects. Wolbachia interferes with host physiology and induces various alterations like cytoplasmic incompatibilty, parthenogenesis, feminization, male killing and inhibition of parasite and pathogen propagation. In last decade, it has been used as transinfected bioagent in the control strategies of vector-borne diseases. Current study involves the detection of Wolbachia from Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans for the first time in Pakistan. The fruit flies collected were screened for the presence of Wolbachia using Wolbachia surface protein (wsp) gene specific primers by conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR). D. melanogaster and D. simulans represented 90.6% (96/106) and 89.6% (69/77) Wolbachia infection respectively. Nucleotide BLAST reslut of partial wsp gene sequence from detected strain of D. melanogaster indicated 100% homology with Walachia endosymbiont of D. melanogaster reported from Australia and detected Wolbachia of D. simulans represented 100% homology with Wolbachia endosymbiont wRi strain of D. simulans from Sweden. Both of the detected strains belonged to supergroup A and were named as wMel (D. melanogaster) and wRiv (D. simulans) on the basis of host and wsp similarity.

| Views 36 |

Wsp gene based detection and characterization of Wolbachia in indigenous Drosophila

Albertson RJ, Tan V, Leads RR, Reyes M, Sullivan W, Casper-Lindley C. 2013. Mapping Wolbachia distributions in the adult Drosophila brain. Cellular Microbiology 15, 1527-1544.

Baldo L, Dunning Hotopp JC, Jolley KA, Bordenstein SR, Biber SA, Choudhury RR, Hayashi C, Maiden MC, Tettelin H, Werren JH. 2006. Multilocus sequence typing system for the endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 72, 7098-7110.

Baldo L, Lo N, Werren JH. 2005. Mosaic nature of the Wolbachia surface protein. Journal of Bacteriology 187, 5406-5418.

Bazzocchi C, Jamnongluk W, O’Neill SL, Anderson TJ, Genchi C, Bandi C. 2000. wsp gene sequences from the Wolbachia of filarial nematodes. Current Microbiology 41, 96-100.

Blagrove MS, Arias-Goeta C, Failloux AB, Sinkins SP. 2012. Wolbachia strain wMel induces cytoplasmic incompatibility and blocks dengue transmission in Aedes albopictus. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 109, 255-260.

Braig HR, Guzman H, Tesh RB, O’Neill SL. 1994. Replacement of the natural Wolbachia symbiont of Drosophila simulans with a mosquito counterpart. Nature 367, 453-455.

Casper-Lindley C, Kimura S, Saxton DS, Essaw Y, Simpson I, Tan V, Sullivan W. 2011. Rapid fluorescence-based screening for Wolbachia endosymbionts in Drosophila germ line and somatic tissues. Applied and Environmental Microbiology   77, 4788-4794.

Chai HN, Du YZ, Qiu BL, Zhai BP. 2011. Detection and phylogenetic analysis of Wolbachia in the Asiatic rice leafroller, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis, in Chinese populations. Journal of Insect Science (Ludhiana) 11, 123.

Charlat S, Nirgianaki A, Bourtzis K, Mercot H. 2002. Evolution of Wolbachia-induced cytoplasmic incompatibility in Drosophila simulans and D. sechellia. Evolution 56, 1735-1742.

Correa CC, Ballard J. 2016. Wolbachia associations with insects: winning or losing against a master manipulator. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 3, 153.

Hilgenboecker K, Hammerstein P, Schlattmann P, Telschow A, Werren JH. 2008. How many species are infected with Wolbachia?-A statistical analysis of current data. FEMS Microbiology Letters 281, 215-220.

Hoffmann AA, Montgomery BL, Popovici J, Iturbe-Ormaetxe I, Johnson PH, Muzzi F, Greenfield M, Durkan M, Leong YS, Dong Y, Cook H, Axford J, Callahan AG, Kenny N, Omodei C, Mcgraw EA, Ryan PA, Ritchie SA, Turelli M, O’Neill SL. 2011. Successful establishment of Wolbachia in Aedes populations to suppress dengue transmission. Nature 476, 454-457.

Hornett EA, Duplouy AM, Davies N, Roderick GK, Wedell N, Hurst GD, Charlat S. 2008. You can’t keep a good parasite down: Evolution of a male-killer suppressor uncovers cytoplasmic incompatibility. Evolution 62, 1258-1263.

Hughes GL, Ren X, Ramirez JL, Sakamoto JM, Bailey JA, Jedlicka AE, Rasgon JL. 2011. Wolbachia infections in Anopheles gambiae cells: transcriptomic characterization of a novel host-symbiont interaction. Public Library of Science Pathogens 7, e1001296.

Huigens ME, Luck RF, Klaassen RH, Maas MF, Timmermans MJ, Stouthamer R. 2000. Infectious parthenogenesis. Nature 405, 178-179.

Jaenike J, Dyer KA, Cornish C, Minhas MS. 2006. Asymmetrical reinforcement and Wolbachia infection in Drosophila. Public Library of Science Biology 4, e325.

James AC, Ballard JW. 2000. Expression of cytoplasmic incompatibility in Drosophila simulans and its impact on infection frequencies and distribution of Wolbachia pipientis. Evolution 54, 1661-1672.

Joshi D, Mcfadden MJ, Bevins D, Zhang F, Xi Z. 2014. Wolbachia strain wAlbB confers both fitness costs and benefit on Anopheles stephensi. Parasites and vectors 7, 336.

Lu P, Bian G, Pan X, Xi Z. 2012. Wolbachia induces density-dependent inhibition to dengue virus in mosquito cells. Public Library of Science Neglected Tropical Diseases 6, e1754.

Marcon HS, Coscrato VE, Selivon D, Perondini AL, Marino CL. 2011. Variations in the sensitivity of different primers for detecting Wolbachia in Anastrepha (diptera: tephritidae). Brazilian Journal of Microbiology 42, 778-785.

Rasgon JL, Scott TW. 2004. An initial survey for Wolbachia (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) infections in selected California mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). Journal of Medical Entomology 41, 255-257.

Raychoudhury R, Grillenberger BK, Gadau J, Bijlsma R, Van De Zande L, Werren JH, Beukeboom LW. 2010. Phylogeography of Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenoptera) indicates a mitochondrial-Wolbachia sweep in North America. Heredity (Edinburgh) 104, 318-326.

Riegler M, Sidhu M, Miller WJ, O’neill SL. 2005. Evidence for a global Wolbachia replacement in Drosophila melanogaster. Current Biology 15, 1428-1433.

Serbus LR, Landmann F, Bray WM, White PM, Ruybal J, Lokey RS, Debec A, Sullivan W. 2012. A cell-based screen reveals that the albendazole metabolite, albendazole sulfone, targets Wolbachia. Public Library of Science Pathogens 8, e1002922.

Vavre F, Fleury F, Varaldi J, Fouillet P, Bouletreau M. 2000. Evidence for female mortality in Wolbachia-mediated cytoplasmic incompatibility in haplodiploid insects: epidemiologic and evolutionary consequences. Evolution 54, 191-200.

Walker T, Johnson PH, Moreira LA, Iturbe-Ormaetxe I, Frentiu FD, Mcmeniman CJ, Leong YS, Dong Y, Axford J, Kriesner P, Lloyd AL, Ritchie SA, O’Neill SL, Hoffmann AA. 2011. The wMel Wolbachia strain blocks dengue and invades caged Aedes aegypti populations. Nature 476, 450-453.

Werren JH, Baldo L, Clark ME. 2008. Wolbachia: Master manipulators of invertebrate biology. Nature Reviews Microbiology 6, 741-751.

Wu M, Sun LV, Vamathevan J, Riegler M, Deboy R, Brownlie JC, Mcgraw EA, Martin W, Esser C, Ahmadinejad N. 2004. Phylogenomics of the reproductive parasite Wolbachia pipientis wMel: a streamlined genome overrun by mobile genetic elements. Public Library of Science Biology 2, E69-E69.

Wu M, Sun LV, Vamathevan J, Riegler M, Deboy R, Brownlie JC, Mcgraw EA, Martin W, Esser C, Ahmadinejad N, Wiegand C, Madupu R, Beanan MJ, Brinkac LM, Daugherty SC, Durkin AS, Kolonay JF, Nelson WC, Mohamoud Y, Lee P, Berry K, Young MB, Utterback T, Weidman J, Nierman WC, Paulsen IT, Nelson KE, Tettelin H, O’Neill SL, Eisen JA. 2004. Phylogenomics of the reproductive parasite Wolbachia pipientis wMel: A streamlined genome overrun by mobile genetic elements. Public Library of Science Biology 2, E69.

Xi Z, Dean JL, Khoo C, Dobson SL. 2005. Generation of a novel Wolbachia infection in Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito) via embryonic microinjection. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 35, 903-910.

Zhou W, Rousset F, O’Neill S. 1998. Phylogeny and PCR-based classification of Wolbachia strains using wsp gene sequences. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 265, 509-515.

Zouache K, Voronin D, Tran-Van V, Mousson L, Failloux AB, Mavingui P. 2009. Persistent Wolbachia and cultivable bacteria infection in the reproductive and somatic tissues of the mosquito vector Aedes albopictus. Public Library of Science One 4, e6388.

Zug R, Hammerstein P. 2012. Still a host of hosts for Wolbachia: Analysis of recent data suggests that 40% of terrestrial arthropod species are infected. Public Library of Science One 7, e38544.

Muhammad Sajjad Sarwar, Nusrat Jahan, Falak Batool, Bushra Kalim.
Wsp gene based detection and characterization of Wolbachia in indigenous Drosophila.
J. Bio. Env. Sci. 10(4), 142-149, April 2017.
Copyright © 2017
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
innspub logo
english language editing
    Publish Your Article
    Submit Your Article
Email Update