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Structure and natural dynamics of Dodonaea viscosa communities in Malakand division, Pakistan

By: Siraj Ahmad, Nasrullah khan, Fazal Hadi, Murad Ali, Waqar Ahmad

Key Words: Dodonaea viscosa, Community structure, Dynamics, Environmental factors, Cluster analysis, ordination (NMS, DCA).

J. Bio. Env. Sci. 9(1), 257-273, July 2016.


The present study aims to investigate the structure and natural dynamics of Dodonaea viscosa in Malakand division. For sampling a 10x10m quadrat was used and 28 stands were sampled. Various phytosociological attributes of the species were calculated. The IVI of 27 plants species was subjected to Cluster Analysis and Ordination which results into the formation of 5 plants communities dominated by D. viscosa. NMS ordination axes 2 was significantly correlated with slope, Potassium and clay % while axes 1 was only found in significant correlation with clay particles. DCA axes 1 was significantly correlated with slope, pH, and organic matter while, axes 2 was correlated significantly with water holding capacity, Nitrogen contents and organic matter. Difference among the density and cover/ha of D. viscosa and associated species in different communities is due to the difference in the values of environmental factors, highest density/ha of D. viscosa was recorded at high altitude, high slope angle, organic matter, water holding capacity, clay %, and Nitrogen content in the soil. D. viscosa mostly grows in calcareous soils with a texture loamy Sand to sandy loam with low phosphorus, marginal nitrogen and potassium contents. D. viscosa can grows at any aspect but it favors areas which receive full sunlight. The height and cover sized classed showed a multi-model pattern (reverse J- shaped, L-shaped, Bell-shaped almost bell shaped and Un-even). The difference in pattern of size classes is due to anthropogenic activities, competition, regeneration pattern, difference in the soil and micro climatic condition of the site.


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