International network for natural sciences – research journal
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Status and efforts of conservation on biodiversity of inland waters in Indonesia: A review

By: Sunardi, Eva Kumala Sari, Ruhyat Partasasmita

Key Words: Biodiversity, Inland waters, Indonesia, Conservation

J. Bio. Env. Sci. 9(5), 86-95, November 2016.


Based on the distribution of the world biodiversity, Indonesia is often called mega-biodiversity region, i.e. a region with the highest biodiversity in the world. Constituting just 13 percent of the world’s total land area, Indonesia is home to 17 percent of all species on the planet, comprising at least 35,000-40,000 plant species (11-15 percent), 707 mammal species (12 percent), 350 amphibian and reptile species (15 percent), 1,602 bird species (17 percent) and 2,184 freshwater fish species (37 percent).However, Indonesia is also recognized as a biodiversity hotspot, referring to its high endemism but with high rate of biodiversity lost as well. In context of inland freshwater, threats to biodiversity include: habitat degradation and fragmentation, consumption/over-exploitation, pollution, invasive alien species, and climate change. The Government of Indonesia has set policies, laws, and programs, to address the issues of biodiversity. This paper aims to evaluate the protrection efforts in order to see the recent state of the freshwater biodiversity.The authors find that the freshwater biodiversity loss seems to continue unabated indicating that the efforts of national biodiversity protection are not effectively implemented.


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