International network for natural sciences – research journal
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Reproductive strategy uniqueness of Littoraria scabra (Gastropoda: Littorinidae), in Tombariri mangrove, North Sulawesi, Indonesia

By: Jans Djoike Lalita, Umi Zakiyah, Diana Arfiati, Marsoedi

Key Words: Littoraria scabra, Reproductive strategy, Ovovivipar, Sex ratio, Gonad.

J. Bio. Env. Sci. 8(4), 49-62, April 2016.


This study used Littoraria scabra as a research model of reproductive strategy and attempted to understand how the species optimize their survival in mangrove area. It was aimed at investigating the reproductive strategy of ovoviviparous L. scabra in order to maintain their survival in mangrove ecosystem. Reproductive strategy observations of L. scabra were done by looking at mating, gonad maturity index, and sex ratio. Results showed that the reproductive strategy of L. scabra was as follows: a) there were 64.58% of mating pairs on the stem of S. ovata and b) sex ratio was globally significant different, but it was generally nonsignificant on monthly basis. Specific strategy of ovoviviparous species L. scabra with reproductive patterns, i.e mating, gonad maturity, and sex ratio was to optimize their reproductive success in extreme three-dimensional mangrove habitat. This study concluded that the reproductive strategy uniqueness of male L. scabra possessed fertilized eggs and very rare brooding system in male body and quickly released larvae.


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