International network for natural sciences – research journal
  • mendeley icon
  • linkedin icon
  • google plus icon
  • twitter icon
  • google scholar icon
  • facebook icon

Optimizing lining length of watercourses for increased water saving in Punjab, Pakistan

By: Arsam Ahmed Awan, Ishtiaq Hassan, Muhammad Hassan

Key Words: Economic benefits, Operational, Optimum lining, Polynomial regression, Surface water, Watercourses

J. Bio. Env. Sci. 10(2), 173-180, February 2017.


The concern of water losses through the irrigation system has significant impact on the supply through of surface water. There is a high quantum of surface water losses in unlined watercourses that reduces the efficiency of water supply system and makes it uneconomical. An extensive study has been carried out to calculate conveyance losses using operational inflow and outflow approach. The losses from both lined and unlined watercourses of a similar geographical area, has been calculated and compared to compute the percentage saving of water. The percentage of water saving against increase in percentage lining were modeled using polynomial regression and optimum lining length for unlined water courses has been computed as 50% and it is found that maximum economic benefits can be obtained using this length that corresponds to 80% of water saving.

| Views 37 |

Optimizing lining length of watercourses for increased water saving in Punjab, Pakistan

Akkuzu E. 2012. Usefulness of Empirical Equations in Assessing Canal Losses through Seepage in Concrete-Lined Canal. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage, ASCE 138, 455-460.

Alam MM, Bhutta MN. 2004. Comparative evaluation of canal seepage investigation techniques. Agricultural Water Management 66(1), 65-76.

Arshad M, Ahmad N, Usman M, Shabbir A. 2009. Comparison of Water Losses between Unlined and Lined Watercourses in Indus Basin of Pakistan. Pakistan Journal Agricultural Science 46(2), 280-284.

Arshad M, Ahmad N. 2011. Performance assessment of irrigation system in rice-wheat cropping zone using modern techniques, ICID 21st International Congress on Irrigation and Drainage 15-23. October 2011, Tehran, Iran.

Block P, Rajagopalan B. 2009. Statistical-dynamical approach for stream flow modeling at malakal, sudan, on the white Nile river. Journal of Hydrologic Engineering 14(2), 185-196.

Chatha ZA, Arshad M, Shakoor A. 2014. Design and Cost Analysis of Watercourse Lining for Sustainable Water Saving. Journal of Agricultural Research 52, 589-595.

Copland. 1987. Technical Economic Feasibility Report for Khushab Salinity Control and Reclamation Project. Asian Development Bank 96.

Javaid F, Arshad M, Khan AM, Shabbir A, Shakoor A. 2012. Performance Assessment of Lined Watercourses in Distict Jhang. Pakistan Journal Agricultural Science 49(1), 73-77.

Joshi D, St-Hilaire A, Daigle, A, Ouarda TB. 2013. Databased comparison of sparse bayesian learning and multiple linear regression for statistical downscaling of low flow indices. Journal of Hydrologic Engineering 488, 136-149.

Kahlown MA, Kemper WD. 2004. Reducing water losses from channels using linings: Cost and benefits in Pakistan. Agricultural Water Management 74, 57-76.

Liang Z, Wang D, Guo Y, Zhang Y, Dai R. 2013. Application of bayesian model averaging approach to multimodel ensemble hydrologic forecasting. Journal of Hydrologic Engineering 18(11), 1426-1436.

Marshall L, Nott D, Sharma A. 2007. Towards dynamic catchment modelling: a Bayesian hierarchical mixtures of experts framework. Hydrological Processes 21, 847-861.

Martin CA, Gates TK. 2014. Uncertainty of canal seepage losses estimated using flowing water balance with acoustic Doppler device. Journal of Hydrology 517, 746-761.

Moghazi HEM, Ismail ES. 1997. Study of losses from field channels under arid region conditions. Irrigation Science 17(3), 105110.

Planning commission-I, PIPIP. 2012. Punjab Irrigated agriculture Productivity Improvement Project. PC-I by On Farm Water Management, Lahore, Pakistan.

Reuss JO, Skogerboe GV, Hener DJ. 1979. To improve agriculture productivity. CSU 42L.

Royston P, Altman DG. 1994, Regression using fractional polynomials of continuous covariates: parsimonious parametric modelling (with discussion). Applied Statistics 43, 429-467.

Shaikh IA, Lee  ST. 2016. Estimating Earthen Tertiary Water Channel Seepage Losses as a Function of Soil Texture. Journal of Hydrologic Engineering 21(2), 570-583.

Thomas JT. 1980. “Factors Affecting Losses from Indus Basin Irrigation Channels.” Journal of Hydrology 22, 370-377.

Ticlavilca,AM, McKee M, Walker WR. 2013. “Real-time forecasting of short-term irrigation canal demands using a robust multivariate Bayesian learning model.” Irrigation Science 31(2), 151-167.

Trout TJ. 1983. Measurement Device Effect on Channel Water Losses. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage, ASCE 109, 60-71.

Vigiak O, Bende-Mich U. 2013, Estimating bootstrap and Bayesian prediction intervals for constituent load rating curves. Water Resources Research 49, 8565-8578.

Wachyan E, Rushton KR. 1987. Water losses from irrigation Canals. Journal of Hydrology 92, 275-288.

Wellen C, Arhonditsis GB, Labencki T, Boyd D. 2012. A Bayesian methodological framework for accommodating interannual variability of nutrient loading with the SPARROW model. Water Resources Research 48(10), W10505.

Zeb J, Ahmad S, Aslam-Badaruddin A. 2000. Evaluation of conveyance losses in three unlined watercourses of the Warsak Gravity Canal. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 3(2), 352-353.

Arsam Ahmed Awan, Ishtiaq Hassan, Muhammad Hassan. 2017. Optimizing lining length of watercourses for increased water saving in Punjab, Pakistan. J. Bio. Env. Sci. 10(2), 173-180.
Copyright © 2017
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
innspub logo
english language editing
    Publish Your Article
    Submit Your Article
Email Update