Natural plant based solution for industrial wastewater
By: Amina Kanwal, Safdar Ali, Muhammad Farhan
Key Words: Industrial wastewater, Germination, Urban forestry, Eco-friendly, Fabaceae
J. Bio. Env. Sci. 10(6), 83-91, June 2017.Certificate
In developing countries like Pakistan, industries are increasing rapidly and are reluctant to manage industrial wastes and wastewaters. This industrial wastewater (IWW) containing number of toxic chemicals, which join natural water streams to disturb the whole ecosystem. Among physical and chemical methods to treat IWW, nature based systems are gaining popularity being more eco-friendly, less laboriously and economical. One way is to irrigate forests with IWW where toxic chemicals/metals can be taken up by plants and is stored for longer time. We conducted seed germination studies on 5 tree species of family fabaceae. Healthy seeds of each species were surface sterilized and placed as 10 per Petri plate on 1 g cotton bed moistened with 15 ml of IWW diluted to 4 concentrations along with control, the Petri plates were placed in growth room for 15 days. Only 4 species responded well in the following sequence; Dalbergia sissoo L. > Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth > Bauhinia purpurea L. > Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre. Seed germination percentage, germination time, seedling length and seedling fresh weight showed positive correlation with concentration of IWW. Heavy metal concentrations found in IWW were 0.006(Cu), 0.0097(Mn), 0.0014(Cr) and 0.0017(Pb) mgL-1. At higher concentration of IWW the germination response was reduced to nil, may be due to the increased toxicity level. Dalbergia sissoo showed 65% germination in 100% IWW. The maximum mean time to germination (115 hrs) was observed in Millettia peguensis and the maximum tolerance index (122) was exhibited by Dalbergia sissoo. Based on germination index, mean time to germination, tolerance index and vigor index these species can be potential candidates to be used in forestry with diluted IWW irrigation. This study highlighted the use of IWW for forest irrigation benefits like, IWW management, IWW treatment, irrigation water scarcity and low forest cover.
Natural plant based solution for industrial wastewater
Adam G, and Duncan H. 2002. Influence of diesel fuel on seed germination. Environmental Pollution 120, 363-370.
Ali HM, EL-Mahrouk EM, Hassan FA, EL-Tarawy MA. 2011. Usage of sewage effluent in irrigation of some woody tree seedlings. Part 3: Swietenia mahagoni (L.) Jacq. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 18, 201-207 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2010.08.001
Barbera AC, Maucieri C, Ioppolo A, Milani M, Cavallaro V. 2013. Effects of olive mill wastewater physico-chemical treatments on polyphenol abatement and Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L) germinability. Water research 52(1), 275-281.
Ensink J, Simmons J, Van der Hoek W. 2004. Wastewater use in Pakistan: The cases of Haroonabad and Faisalabad. In Wastewater use in irrigated agriculture, C. Scott, N. Faruqui, and L. Raschid-Sally, Wallingford: CAB International, 91–102. https://books.google.com.pk/books?isbn=1848261837
Han P, Kumar P, Bee-Lian O. 2014. Remediation of nutrient-rich waters using the terrestrial plant, Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb. Journal of Environmental Science 26(2), 404-414.
Hussain F, Malik SA, Athar A, Bashir N, Younis U, Hassan MU, Mahmood S. 2010. Effect of tannery effluents on seed germination and growth of two sunflower cultivars. African Journal of Biotechnology 9(32), 5113-5120.
Jelusic M, Grcman H, Vodnik D, Suhadolc M, Lestan D. 2013. Functioning of metal contaminated garden soil after remediation. Environmental Pollution 174, 63-70.
Khaleel RI, Ismail N, Ibrahim MH. 2013. The Impact of Waste Water Treatments on Seed Germination and Biochemical Parameter of Abelmoschus Esculentus L. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences 91, 453-460.
Mansell J, Drewes J, Rauch T. 2004. Removal mechanisms of endocrine disrupting compounds (Steroids) during soil aquifer treatment. Water Science and Technology 50(2), 229–237
Manu KJ, Kumar M, Mohana VS. 2012. Effect of Dairy Effluent (treated and untreated) on Seed Germination, Seedling Growth and Biochemical Parameters of Maize (Zea mays L.). International Journal of Research and Chemical Environment 2(1), 62-69. www.journals.indexcopernicus.com/issue.php?id=800&id_issue=864388
Mekki A, Dhouib A, Sayadi S. 2007. Polyphenols dynamics and phytotoxicity in a soil amended by olive mill wastewaters. Journal of Environmental Management 84, 134-140.
Mongkhonsin B, Nakbanpote W, Nakai I, Hokura A, Jearanaikoon N. 2011. Distribution and speciation of chromium accumulated in Gynura pseudochina (L.) DC. Environmental and
Experimental Botany 74, 56-64.
Mosse KPM, Patti AF, Christen EW, Cavagnaro TR. 2010. Winery wastewater inhibits seed germination and vegetative growth of common crop species. Journal of Hazardous Material 180, 63-70.
Naser AA, Pereira ME, Ahmad I, Duarte AC, Umar S, Khan NA. 2012. Phytotechnologies, Remediation of Environmental Contaminants. CRC Press, Pages 7–74.
Pena A, Mingorance MD, Guzmán I, Sánchez L, Espinosa AJF, Valdés B, Rossini-Oliva S. 2014. Protecting effect of recycled urban wastes (sewage sludge and wastewater) on ryegrass against the toxicity of pesticides at high. Journal of Environmental Management 142, 23-29.
Prabhakar PS, Mall M, Singh J. 2004. Impact of fertilizer factory effluent on Seed Germination, Seedling growth and Chlorophyll content of Gram (Cicer aeritenum). Journal of Environmental Biology 27(1), 153-156.
Rascio N, Navari-Izzo F. 2011. Heavy metal accumulating plants: how and why do they do it? And what makes them so interesting? Plant Science 180, 169-181.
Stutte GW, Eraso I, Anderson S, Hickey RD. 2006. Bioactivity of volatile alcohols on the germination and growth of radish seedlings.
Horticulture Science 41, 108-112.
Zhang W, Cai Y, Tu C, Ma LQ. 2002. Arsenic speciation and distribution in an arsenic hyperaccumulating plant. Science of the Total Environment 300, 167-177.
Natural plant based solution for industrial wastewater.
J. Bio. Env. Sci. 10(6), 83-91, June 2017.
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)