International network for natural sciences – research journal
  • mendeley icon
  • linkedin icon
  • google plus icon
  • twitter icon
  • google scholar icon
  • facebook icon

Evaluation of physicochemical and bacteriological pollution of some water bodies of Franceville (Gabon)

By: Jean-Fabrice Yala, Hilaire Kenguele Moundounga, Arnaud Brice Pambo-Pambo, Rolande Mabika Mabika, Elvis Same Minko, Alexis Nicaise Lepengué, Et Alain Souza

Key Words: Physicochemical, Parameters, Total coliform, E. coli, Pollution

J. Bio. Env. Sci. 11(5), 365-375, November 2017.

Certification: jbes 2017 0132 [Generate Certificate]


The city of Franceville is irrigated by two main water bodies : the M’Passa and the Ogooué Rivers; these water sources are subjected to anthropogenic pollution. Therefore, we decided to evaluate the quality of these water bodies using physicochemical and bacteriological parameters. Physicochemical parameters were measured in situ using the HANNA 9828 multiparameter. Phosphate, sulfate, and ammonium concentrations were determined by spectrophotometric analysis. Total coliform and Escherichia coli were enumerated simultaneously on selective media, namely Eosin methylene blue (EMB), MacConkey and m-Endo agar. Presumptive E. coli isolates were identified by biochemical tests. The results of the physicochemical analysis revealed that the temperature, the conductivity, and dissolved oxygen percent were within the normal ranges. The pH of the M’Passa River was acid with values of 6.20±0.58 and 6.09±0.42 for M’Passa 1 and M’Passa 2, respectively, suggesting that the water was polluted; while the pH of the Ogooué River was neutral (7.01±0.46). Phosphate, sulfate, and ammonium concentrations were low. High levels of total coliform and E. coli were found in all water samples suggesting that they were contaminated with bacteria, with samples of the Ogooué being more polluted. Biochemical analysis detected the presence of Yersinia enterocolitica and Klebsiela pneumoniae, whereas no E. coli isolate was identified. This study of water Bodies of Franceville shows that there is no physicochemical pollution. However, all water samples contained bacteria and could therefore pose a health threat to the local population.

| Views 9 |

Evaluation of physicochemical and bacteriological pollution of some water bodies of Franceville (Gabon)

Abu-Jawdeh G, Laria S, Bourahla A. 2000. LIBAN : enjeux et politiques d’environnement et de développement durable. Beyrouth : Éditions du Programme des Nations‑Unies pour l’Environnement /Plan Bleu/Centre d’Activités Régionales. 54p.

Anderson KL, Whitlock JE, Harwood VJ. 2005. Persistence and differential survival of fecal indicator bacteria in subtropical waters and sediments. Appl Environ Microbiol 71, 3041–3048.

Ayoko GA, Singh K, Balerea S, Kokot S. 2007. Exploratory multivariate modeling and prediction of the physico-chemical properties of surface water and groundwater. J. Hydrol 336, 115–124.

Behera BC, Mishra RR, Patra JK, Dutta SK, Thatoi HN. 2014. Physico-chemical Properties of Water Sample Collected From Mangrove Ecosystem of Mahanadi River Delta, Odisha, India. Am. J. Mar. Sci 2, 19–24.

Biscara L, Mulder T, Martinez P, Baudin F, Etcheber H, Jouanneau JM, Garlan T. 2011. Transport of terrestrial organic matter in the Ogooué deep sea turbidite system (Gabon). Mar. Petrol. Geol 28, 1061–1072.

Bonkoungou IJ, Haukka K, Osterblad M, Hakanen AJ, Traore AS, Barro N, Siitonen A. 2013. Bacterial and viral etiology of childhood diarrhea in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. BMC. Pediatr 13, 1–6.

Duru E, Agbagwa O, Umoren F. 2014. Bacterial Agents Associated With Infantile Diarrhea and Their Antibiotics Susceptibility Pattern in Port Harcourt, South-South, Nigeria. J. Med. Sci. Public Health            3, 01–12.

Felipe-Sotelo M, Andrade JM, Carlosena A, Tauler R. 2007. Temporal characterization of river waters in urban and semi-urban areas using physico-chemical parameters and chemometric methods. Anal. Chim. Acta 583, 128–137.

Ghazali D, Zaid A. 2013. Etude de la qualité physico-chimique et bactériologique des eaux de la source Ain Salama-Jerri (Région de Meknes-Maroc). Larhyss Journal 12, 25–36.

Hamdi W, Youcefi M, Touil Y, Bourgrinat R, Ferhi N, Ould El Hadj MD. 2012. Contribution à l’étude de quelques caractères physicochimiques et hygièniques des eaux usée issues de rejets de certaines localités de la cuvette d’Ouargla (Sahara septentrional Est Algérien) : impact sur le milieu récepteur. Alg. J. Arid. Environ 2, 56–63.

Himangshu Shekhar M, Amrita D, Ashis Kumar N. 2012. Study of Some Physicochemical Water Quality Parameters of Karola River, West Bengal – An Attempt to Estimate Pollution Status. Int. J. Environ. Protec 2, 16–22.

Ifeanyi C, Ifeanyichukwu C, Isu RN, Akpa CA, Ikeneche NF. 2013. Enteric Bacteria Pathogens Associated With Diarrhoea of Children in the Federal Capital Territory Abuja, Nigeria. N. Y. Sci. J 1, 62–69.

Kacar A. 2011. Analysis of spatial and temporal variation in the levels of microbial fecal indicators in the major rivers flowing into the Aegean Sea, Turkey. Ecol Indic 11, 1360–1365.

Kataria HC, Gupta M, Kumar M, Sandhya K, Serwati K, Sonal T, Rani B, Naval KB. 2011. Study of Physico-chemical Parameters of Drinking Water of Bhopal city with Reference to Health Impacts. Curr. World. Environ 6, 95–99.

Mahé G, Lerique J, Olivry J. 1990. Le fleuve Ogooué au Gabon, Reconstitution des débits manquants et mise en évidence de variations climatiques à l’équateur. Hydrol. Cont 5, 105–124.

McLellan SL, Daniels AD, Salmore AK. 2001. Clonal Populations of Thermotolerant Enterobacte riaceae in Recreational Water and Their Potential Interference with Fecal Escherichia coli Counts. Appl. Environ.  Microbiol 67, 4934–4938.

Moresco V, Viancelli A, Nascimento MA, Souza DS, Ramos AP, Garcia LA, Simoes CM, Barardi CR. 2012. Microbiological and physicochemical analysis of the coastal waters of southern Brazil. Mar. Pollut. Bull 64, 40–48.

Ozkanca R, Flint KP. 2002. The effect of starvation stress on the porin protein expression of Escherichia coli in lake water. Lett. Appl. Microbiol 35, 533–537.

Ozkanca R, Saribiyik F, Isik K, Sahin N, Kariptas E, Flint KP. 2009. Resuscitation and quantification of stressed Escherichia coli K12 NCTC8797 in water samples. Microbiol. Res 164, 212–220.

Pelmont J. 1993. Bactéries et environnement : adaptations physiologiques. Coll. Grenoble. Sci 899p.

Pisciotta JM, Rath DF, Stanek PA, Flanery DM, Harwood VJ. 2002. Marine Bacteria Cause False-Positive Results in the Colilert-18 Rapid Identification Test for Escherichia coli in Florida Waters. App. Environ. Microbiol 8, 539–544.

Pommepuy M, Dupray E, Guillaud JF, Derrien A, L’ Yavanc I, Cormier M. 1991. Rejets urbains et contamination fécale. Oceanologica Acta sp 21–327.

Portejoie S, Martinez J, Landmann G. 2002. L’ammoniac d’origine agricole : impacts sur la santé humaine et animale et sur le milieu naturel. INRA. Prod. Anim 15, 151–160.

Richard A, Léonard G. 1993. Le Gabon. Institut Pédagogique National. EDIG EDICEF 1–288.

Rodier J. 1996. L’analyse de l’eau. Ed. DOIN, 8ème édition, Paris: 644–1047.

Rompré A, Servais P, Baudart J, De-Roubin MR, Laurent P. 2002. Detection and enumeration of coliforms in drinking water: current methods and emerging approaches. J. Microbiol. Methods 49, 31–54.

Scofield V, Jacques SM, Guimaraes JR, Farjalla VF. 2015. Potential changes in bacterial metabolism associated with increased water temperature and nutrient inputs in tropical humic lagoons. Front. Microbiol 6, 1–10.

Singh L, Choudhary SK. 2013. Physico-chemical characteristics of river water of Ganga in in middle Ganga plains. Int. J. Inn. Res. in Sci. Eng. Technol 2, 4349–4357.

Tamatcho Kweyang BP, Fosing Kwetche PR, Njine T, Nola M, Djogo P. 2009. Quelques facteurs déterminant la distribution des bactéries du genre Vibrio dans l’environnement aquatique de Yaoundé, Cameroun. Cameroon Journal of Experimental Biology 05, 96–103.

Wang D, Fiessel W. 2008. Evaluation of media for simultaneous enumeration of total coliform and Escherichia coli in drinking water supplies by membrane filtration techniques. J. of Environ. Sci 20, 273–277.

Xiao-long W, Yong-long L, Jing-yi H, Gui-zhen H, Tie-yu W. 2007. Identification of anthropogenic influences on water quality of rivers in Taihu watershed. J. of Environ. Sci 19, 475–481.

Zongo SB, Koumba Mabert BDC, Ndiaye A, Padzys GS, Omouendze Mouaragadja LP, Lepengué NA, Schmitt FG. 2013. Variability of pH in the Ogooué and M’passa rivers (Gabon). J. Bio & Env. Sci 3,70–80.

Jean-Fabrice Yala, Hilaire Kenguele Moundounga, Arnaud Brice Pambo-Pambo, Rolande Mabika Mabika, Elvis Same Minko, Alexis Nicaise Lepengué, Et Alain Souza.
Evaluation of physicochemical and bacteriological pollution of some water bodies of Franceville (Gabon).
J. Bio. Env. Sci. 11(5), 365-375, November 2017.
Copyright © 2017
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
innspub logo
english language editing
    Publish Your Article
    Submit Your Article
Email Update