Diversity and Species Composition of Spiders (Arachnida: Aranaeae) at Different Habitats in Mount Tumpa Forest Park, North Sulawesi, Indonesia
By: Roni Koneri, Meis Nangoy
Key Words: Primary forest, Abundance, Richness, Araneidae, Theridiidae.
J. Bio. Env. Sci. 8(5), 52-61, May 2016.
The complexity of the vegetation habitats of spiders affects their diversity. An analysis of diversity and species composition of spiders (Arachnida: Araneae) in Mount Tumpa Forest Park, North Sulawesi was done by sampling them in three habitats: primary forest, secondary forest and agricultural land, from April to August 2015 using pitfall traps for spiders on the ground and sweep nets for spiders that live in the canopy. A total of 2218 spiders belonged to 17 families consisting of 62 genera and 137 morphospecies. Araneidae being most commonly occurring family (24.75%) followed by Tetragnathidae (24.48%) while the least common was Scytodidae (0.09%). The families with the most species were Theridiidae (14 morphospecies) then Araneidae, Salticidae each having 11 morphospecies. Indices of abundance (N = 186), species richness (S = 51.75), species diversity (H = 3.28) and species evenness (E = 0.83) was the highest in primary forest and the lowest in agricultural land. Spider community similarity between habitats showed the greatest similarity index between primary forests and secondary forests (IS = 68 %). It was concluded that the highest diversity of spider species among all types of habitat are in the primary forest. Therefore complexity of vegetation in these habitats need to be preserved to maintain the survivorship of the spider.