International network for natural sciences – research journal
  • mendeley icon
  • linkedin icon
  • google plus icon
  • twitter icon
  • google scholar icon
  • facebook icon

A comprehensive review on phytoremediation of cadmium (Cd) by mustard (Brassica juncea L.) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

By: Awais Shakoor, Muhammad Abdullah, Rubab Sarfraz, Muhammad Ahsan Altaf, Saneya Batool

Key Words: Phytoremediation, Cadmium (Cd), Toxicity, Sunflower, Mustard

J. Bio. Env. Sci. 10(3), 88-98, March 2017.


Phytoremediation is an important process in the removal of heavy metals and contaminants from the soil and the environment. Plants can help clean many types of pollution, including metals, pesticides, explosives, and oil. Phytoremediation in phytoextraction is a major technique. In this process is the use of plants or algae to remove contaminants in the soil, sediment or water in the harvesting of plant biomass. Heavy metal is generally known set of elements with atomic mass (> 5 gcm -3), particularly metals such as exchange of cadmium, lead and mercury. Between different pollutant cadmium (Cd) is the most toxic and plant and animal heavy metals. Mustard (Brassica juncea L.) and Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) are the plant for the production of high biomass and rapid growth, and it seems that the appropriate species for phytoextraction because it can compensate for the low accumulation of cadmium with a much higher biomass yield. To use chelators, such as acetic acid, ethylene diaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and to increase the solubility of metals in the soil to facilitate easy availability indiscernible and the absorption of the plant from root leg in vascular plants.

| Views 74 |

A comprehensive review on phytoremediation of cadmium (Cd) by mustard (Brassica juncea L.) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

Ali H, Khan E, Sajad MA. 2013. Phytoremediation of heavy metals-concepts and applications. Chemosphere 91(7), 869-881.

Alkorta1 I, Hernandez-Allica J, Becerril JM, Amezaga I, Albizu I, Garbisu C. 2004. Recent findings on the phytoremediation of soils contaminated with environmentally toxic heavy metals and metalloids such as zinc, cadmium, lead, and arsenic. Reviews in Environmental Science and Bio/Technology 3, 71–90.

Basta N, Raun W, Gavi F. 1998. Wheat grain cadmium under long-term fertilization and continuous winter wheat production. Better Crops 82, 14-15.

Becker H. 2000. Phytoremediation–Using plants to clean up soils: Agricultural Research v. 48, no. 6.

Blaylock MJ, Salt DE, Dushenkov S, Zakharova O, Gussman C, Kapulnik Y, Ensley, BD, Raskin I, 1997.Enhanced accumulation of Pb in Indian mustard by soil-applied chelating agents. Environ. Sci. Technol. 31, 860–865.

Borsari M. 2011. Cadmium: Inorganic & Coordination Chemistry.In: Encyclopedia of Inorganic and Bioinorganic Chemistry. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Bricker TJ, Pichtel J, Brown HJ, Simmons M. 2001.Phytoextraction of Pb and Cd from superficial soil: effects of amendments and croppings. J. Environ. Sci. Health Part A: Toxic/Hazard. Subst. Environ. Eng. 36, 1597–1610.

Burken JG. 2004. “2. Uptake and Metabolism of Organic Compounds: Green-Liver Model”, in McCutcheon, S.C.; Schnoor, J.L., Phytoremediation: Transformation and Control of Contaminants, A Wiley-Interscience Series of Texts and Monographs, Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley, 59, ISBN0-471-39435-1.,

Cempel M, Nikel G. 2006. Nickel: a review of its sources and environmental toxicology. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies 15(3), 375-382.

Chen Y, Huerta AJ. 1997. Effects of sulfur nutrition on photosynthesis in cadmium‐treated barley seedlings. Journal of plant nutrition 20, 845-856.

Chirakkara RA, Cameselle C, Reddy KR. 2016. Assessing the applicability of phytoremediation of soils with mixed organic and heavy metal contaminants. Reviews in Environmental Science and Bio/Technology 15(2), 299-326.

Costa M. 2000. Chromium and nickel. In: Zalups, R.K., Koropatnick, . J. (Eds.).Molecular Biology and Toxicology of Metals. Taylor and Francis, Great Britain  113-114.

Dabonne S, Koffi B, Kouadio E, Koffi A, Due E, Kouame L. 2010. Traditional utensils: potential sources of poisoning by heavy metals. British Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology 1(2), 90-92.

Davis RD. 1984. Cadmium—a complex environmental problem, cadmium in sludge used as fertilizer. Experientia 40, 117–126.

Del Rio LA, Pastori GM, Palma JM, Sandalio LM, Sevilla F, Corpas FJ, Jimenez A, Lopez-Huertas E, Hemandez JA. 1998. The activated oxygen role of peroxisomes in senescence. Plant Physiol. 116, 1195–1200.

Duffus J. 2002. “Heavy Metals” – A meaningless term? . Pure and Applied Chemistry 74, 793-807.

Evangelou MW, Ebel M, Schaeffer A. 2007. Chelate assisted phytoextraction of heavy metals from soil. Effect, mechanism, toxicity, and fate of chelating agents. Chemosphere 68(6), 989-1003.

Francis CW, Timpson ME, Wilson JH. 1999. Bench-and pilot-scale studies relating to the removal of uranium from uranium-contaminated soils using carbonate and citrate lixiviants. Journal of hazardous materials 66(1), 67-87.

Grant C, Buckley W, Bailey L, Selles F. 1998. Cadmium accumulation in crops. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 78, 1-17.

Greger M, Landberg T. 1999. Using of Willow in Phytoextraction, International Journal of Phytoremediation 1(2), 115–123,

Guo K, Liu YF, Zeng C, Chen YY, XJ Wei. 2014. Global research on soil contamination from 1999 to 2012: A bibliometric analysis. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Soil & Plant Science 64: 377-391.

Hassan MJ, Zhang G, Wu F, Wei K, Chen Z. 2005. Zinc alleviates growth inhibition and oxidative stress caused by cadmium in rice. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science 168, 255-261.

Hyman M, Dupont RR. 2001. Groundwater and soil remediation. ASCE Press,.

Kemp DD. 1998. The environment dictionary. London: Routledge.

Krishnamurti GSR, Huang PM Kozak LM. 1999. Sorption and desorption kinetics of cadmium from soils: influence of phosphate. Soil Science 164, 888-898.

Landmeyer JE. .2011. Introduction to phytoremediation of contaminated groundwater: 431 p.

Lee M, Yang M. 2010. Rhizofiltration using sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. vulgaris) to remediate uranium contaminated groundwater. Journal of hazardous materials, 173(1), 589-596.

Liu X, Tian F, Xie Y, Ji X. 2015. Control effects of Tianshifu soil conditioners on Cd contamination in paddy fields of Hunan Province. Agricultural Science & Technology 16(7), 1447.

Ma Y, Rajkumar M, Luo Y, Freitas H. 2011. Inoculation of endophytic bacteria on host and  non-host plants-effects on plant growth and Ni uptake. J Hazard Mater. 195, 230-237.

Marchiol L, Fellet G, Perosa D,  Zerbi G. 2007.  Removal of trace metals by Sorghum bicolor and Helianthus annuus in a site polluted by industrial wastes: A field experience, Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 45(5), 379–87,,PMID17507235.

Mench M, Schwitzguébel JP, Schroeder P, Bert V, Gawronski S, Gupta S. 2009. Assessment of successful experiments and limitations of phytotechnologies: contaminant uptake, detoxification and sequestration, and consequences for food safety. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 16(7), 876.

Mendez MO, Maier RM. 2008.Phytostabilization of Mine Tailings in Arid and Semiarid Environments-An Emerging Remediation Technology, Environ Health Perspect 116 (3), 278–83.,PMC2265025PMID18335091.

Miya RK, Firestone MK. 2001. Enhanced phenanthrene biodegradation in soil by slender oat root exudates and root debris. Journal of Environmental Quality, 30(6), 1911-1918.

National Research Council. 1997. Innovations in ground water and soil cleanup–From concept to commercialization: Washington, D.C., National Academies Press, 310 p.

Neilson S, Rajakaruna N. 2015. Phytoremediation of agricultural soils: Using plants to clean metal-contaminated arable land. In Phytoremediation (pp. 159-168). Springer International Publishing.

Padmavathiamma PK, Li LY. 2007. Phytoremediation technology: hyper-accumulation metals in plants. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 184(1-4), 105-126.

PJ F, ML VB. 1993. Uptake and distribution of cadmium in maize inbred lines. Plant Soil 150, 25-32.

Pollard AJ, Powell KD, Harper FA, Smith JAC.

.2002. The genetic basis of metal hyper accumulation

in plant. Crit. Rev. Plant Sci. 21, 539–566.

Prasad M. 1995. Cadmium toxicity and tolerance in vascular plants. Environmental and Experimental Botany 35, 525-545.

Rafati M, Khorasani N, Moattar F, Shirvany A, Moraghebi F, Hosseinzadeh S. 2011. Phytoremediation potential of Populus alba and Morus alba for cadmium, chromuim and nickel absorption from polluted soil. International Journal of Environmental Research 5(4), 961-970.

Rafiq MT, Aziz R, Yang X, Xiao W, Rafiq MK, Ali B, Li T. 2014. Cadmium phytoavailability to rice (Oryza sativa L.) grown in representative Chinese soils. A model to improve soil environmental quality guidelines for food safety. Ecotoxicology and environmental safety, 103, 101-107.

Ramadan MAE, Al-Ashkar EA. 2007. The effect of different fertilizers on the heavy metals in soil and tomato plant. Australian Journal of Basic and AppliedSciences 1, 300-306.

Raskin I. 1999. Bioconcentration of heavy metals by plants.Curr. Opin.Biotechnol. 5, 285–290.

Rew A. 2007. Phytoremediation: an environmentally sound technology for pollution prevention, control and remediation in developing countries. Educational Research and Reviews 2(7), 151-156.

Robinson B, Mills T, Petit D, Fungi L, Green S, Clothier B. .2000. Natural and induced cadmium accumulation in poplar and willow, implications for phytoremidiation. Plant Soil 227, 301–306.

Robinson B, Schulin R, Nowack B, Roulier S, Menon M, Clothier B, Mills T. 2006. Phytoremediation for the management of metal flux in contaminated sites. Forest Snow and Landscape Research 80(2), 221-224.

Rupassara SI, Larson RA, Sims GK, Marley K. A. 2002. Degradation of Atrazine by   Hornwort in Aquatic Systems, Bioremediation Journal 6(3), 217-224.

Salt DE, Blaylock M, Kumar NP, Dushenkov, V, Ensley BD, Chet I, Raskin I. 1995. Phytoremediation: a novel strategy for the removal of toxic metals from the environment using plants. Nature biotechnology 13(5), 468-474.

Schnoor JL. 1997. Phytoremediation: Ground-Water Remediation Technologies Analysis Center Technology Evaluation Report TE-98-01.

Shabani N, Sayadi MH. 2012. Evaluation of heavy metals accumulation by two emergent macrophytes from the polluted soil: an experimental study. The Environmentalist 32(1), 91-98.

Summers AO. 1992. The hard stuff: metals in bioremediation. Current Opinion in Biotechnology, 3(3), 271-276.

Suresh B, Ravishankar GA. 2004. Phytoremediation- a novel and promising approach for environmental clean-up. Crit. Rev. Biotechnol. 24, 97–124.

Suza W, Harris RS, Lorence A. 2008. Hairy roots: from high-value metabolite production to phytoremediation. Electr. J. Integr. Biosci. 3, 57–65.

TRAN TA, POPOVA LP. 2013. Functions and toxicity of cadmium in plants:recent advances and future prospects. Turk J Bot 37, 1-13.

Turan M, Esringü A. 2007. Phytoremediation based on canola (Brassica napus L.) and Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) planted on spiked soil by aliquot amount of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn Plant Soil Environ., 53(1), 7–15.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2001.A citizen’s guide to phytoremediation: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Technology Innovation Office.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2011. Using phytoremediation to clean up sites: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, access date June 2, 2011.

Vangronsveld J, Herzig R, Weyens N, Boulet J, Adriaensen K, Ruttens A, Van der Lelie D. 2009. Phytoremediation of contaminated soils and groundwater: lessons from the field. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 16(7), 765-794.

Wang J, Zhao FJ, Meharg AA, Raab A, Feldmann J, McGrath SP. 2002.Mechanisms of Arsenic Hyperaccumulation in Pterisvittata. Uptake Kinetics, Interactions with Phosphate, and Arsenic Speciation, Plant Physiology 130(3), 1552–61.,PMC166674,MID124280.

Zalidis G, Barbayiarinis N, Theodora Matsi. 1999. Forms and distribution of heavy metals in soils of the Axios delta of northern Greece. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis: 817-827.

Zeng F, Ali S, Zhang H, Ouyang Y, Qiu B, Wu F. 2011. The influence of pH and organic matter content in paddy soil on heavy metal availability and their uptake by rice plants. Environmental Pollution 159, 84-91.

ZhiXN, Sun Li NA, Sun Tie-heng, Yu-shuang LI, Wang Hong. 2007. Evaluation of phytoextracting cadmium and lead by sunflower, ricinus, alfalfa and mustard in hydroponic culture. Journal of Environmental Sciences 19, 961–967.

Zhuang P, Yang QW, Wang HB, Shu WS. 2007. Phytoextraction of heavy metals by eight plant species in the field. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 184(1-4), 235-242.

Awais Shakoor, Muhammad Abdullah, Rubab Sarfraz, Muhammad Ahsan Altaf, Saneya Batool.
A comprehensive review on phytoremediation of cadmium (Cd) by mustard (Brassica juncea L.) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).
J. Bio. Env. Sci. 10(3), 88-98, March 2017.
Copyright © 2017
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
innspub logo
english language editing
    Publish Your Article
    Submit Your Article
Email Update