Attenuation of Pb toxicity by virgin olive oil and vitamin C
By: Loudjani Farida, Cherif Abdennour, Ouarda Mansouri
Key Words: Pb, Rat, Vitamin C, Olive Oil, Immunoglobulins
J. Bio. Env. Sci. 11(4), 131-140, October 2017.
Certification: jbes 2017 0091 [Generate Certificate]
The present work was devoted to study the protective antioxidant role of vitamin C and Olive Oil in Wister rats fed a Pb contaminated diet. Females were given, either Pb, Pb-vitamin C (Pb-Vit C) in drinking water or Pb-Olive Oil (Pb-OO) in their diet for 4 weeks. Serum immunoglobulins (Igs), High Density Lipoprotein (HDL), Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL), total cholesterol, triglycerides, calcium and iron, in addition to haematological parameters were evaluated. During four weeks trail, the most important results showed a significant increase in Igs, LDL, White Blood Cells (WBC), Lymphocytes, with a significant decrease in HDL of Pb group. However, the Pb-Vit C and Pb-OO groups showed a significant inverse finding, by an increase in HDL, total cholesterol, and a decrease in Igs. Concerning WBC counts, significant differences were found between the two combined groups when compared to the control. The concentration of triglycerides was decreased significantly in Pb-Vit C group compared to the control. The level of calcium was not affected in all groups, but those of iron, red blood cells (RBC) and haemoglobin (Hb) were statistically altered in all treated groups when compared to control. To conclude, supplementation of vitamin C and olive oil to rats fed a Pb contaminated diet has remarkably modulated the immune system, reduced the levels of LDL and the triglycerides, which perhaps was due to a decrease of the metal intestinal absorption and tissue accumulation.
Attenuation of Pb toxicity by virgin olive oil and vitamin C
Azab EA. 2014. Hepatoprotective effect of sesame oil against lead induced liver damage in albino mice : Histological and biochemical studies. American Journal of Bioscience 2(2), 1-11.
Bauer PJ. 1981. Affinity and stoechiometry of calcium binding by arsenazo III. Analytical. Biochemistry 110(1), 61-72.
Beauchamp GK, Keast RS, Morel D, lin J, Pika J. Han Q, lee CH, Smith AB, Breslin PA. 2005. Phytochemistry: lbuprofen-like activity in extra-virgin olive oil. Nature. 1:437(7055), 45-6.
Borella P, Giardino A. 1991. Lead and cadmium at very low doses affect in vitro immune response of human lymphocytes. Environmental. Research 55(2), 165-177.
Bradberry S, Vale A. 2009. A comparison of sodium calcium edetate (edetate calcium disodium) and succimer (DMSA) in the treatment of inorganic lead poisoning. Clinical Toxicology 47(9), 841-858.
Buccolo G, et David H. 1973. Quantitative determination of serum triglycerides by use of enzimes. Clinical Chemistry 19(5), 476-82.
Burton GW, Joyce A, Ingold KU. 1983. Is vitamin E the only lipid-soluble, chain-breaking antioxidant in human blood plasma and erythrocyte membranes? Arch Biochem Biophys 221(1), 281-90.
Calaberese EJ, Stoddard A, Leonard DA, Dinardi SR. 1987. The effects of vitamin C supplementation on blood and hair Levels of cadmium, lead and mercury. Annals of New York Academy of Sciences 498, 347-353.
Calder PC. 2003. N-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids and inflammation: from molecular biology to the clinic. Lipids 38(4), pp. 343-352.
Carpenter MP, Kitabchi AE, MCCay PB, Caputto R. 1959. The activation by tocopherol and other agents of ascorbic acid synthesis by liver homogenates from vitamin E deficient rats. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 234. pp. 2814-2818.
Chen LH, Barnes F. 1976. Nutritional relationship of vitamin E and vitamin C in guinea pigs . Nutr. Rep. Int 14, 699-708.
Chow CK, Thacker R, Gairola CC. 1979. Increased level of L-ascorbic acid in the plasma of polychlorobip henyls-treated rats and its inhibition by dietary vitamine E. Research. Communication in Chemical Pathology and Pharmacologyl 26(3), 605-608.
Cocco P, Salis S, Anni M, Cocco ME, Flore C, Ibba A. 2010. Effects of short-term occupational exposure to lead on erythrocyte glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity and serum cholesterol. Journal of Applied Toxicology 15(5), 375-378.
Ercal N, Neal R, Treeatphan P, Lutz PM, Hammond TC, Dennery PA, Spitz DR. 2000. A role for oxidative stress in suppressing serum immunoglobulin levels in lead-exposed Fisher 344 Rats. Archive of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 39(2), pp. 251-256.
Fischman CM, Udey MC, Kurtz M, Widner HJ. .1981. Inhibition of lectin-induced lymphocyte activation by 2-cyclohexene-1-one: decreased intracellular glutathione inhibits an early event in the activation sequence. The Journal of Immunology 127(6), 2257-2262.
Flora SJ, pande M, Metha A. 2003. Beneficial effect of combined administration of some naturally occuring antioxidants (vitamins) and thiol chelators in the treatment of chronic lead intoxication. Chemico-Biological Interactions 145(3), 267-280.
Fossati P, prencipe L. 1982. Serum triglycerides determined colorimetrically with an enzyme that produces hydrogen peroxide. Clinical. Chemistry 28(10), 2077-2080.
Fotherby MD, Williams JC, Forster LA, Craner P, Ferns GA. 2000. Effects of vitamin C on ambulatory blood pressure and plasma lipids in older persons. Journal of Hypertension 18(4), 411-415.
Frei B, England L, Ames BN. 1989. Ascorbat is an outstanding antioxidant in human blood plasma. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86, pp. 6377-6381.
Gey KF. 1994. Optimum plasma levels of antioxidant micronutrients: Ten years of antioxidant hypothesis on arterioclerosis. Bibl. Nutr. Dieta. Basel. Karger 51, pp. 84-99.
Kappor S, Seaman C, Hurst D, Matos S, Piomelli S. 1984. The biochemical basis of the clinical interaction of Fe deficiency and lead intoxication. Pediatric Research 18, p. 242A.-242A.
Kashif SM, Zaidi R, Banu N. 2004. Antioxidant potential of vitamins A, E and C in modulating oxidative stress in rat brain. Clinica Chimica Acta 340(1-2), 229-233.
Klasing KC, Lesshchinsky TV. 2000. Interaction between nutrition and immunity. In, ME Gershuim JB German CL, Keen, Nutrition and Immunity. Totowa: Humana Press Inc pp. 363-373.
Kobayashi KK, Yoshida A. 1986. Effect of dietary ascorbic acid and vitamin E on metabolic changes in rats and guinea pigs exposed to PCB. The Journal of Nutrition 116(1), 98-106.
Koller LD, Kovacic S. 1974. Decreased antibody formation in mice exposed to lead. Nature 250, 148-150.
Koller LD. 1973. Immunosuppression produced by lead, cadmium and mercury. Am. J. Vet. Res., (United states) 34, 11.
Korzeniewski C, Collewart DM. 1983. An anzyme-release assay for natural cytotoxicity. Journal of Immunological Methods. 64(3), pp. 313-320.
Kuzminskaya GN. 1965. Effect of lead poisoning on experimental atherosclerosis. Fed Proc. 24, 833.
Livertoux MH. 2000. Toxicologie industrielle et intoxications professionnelles. Pharmacie 4 ème année P. 1-30.
Luster MI, Faith RE, Kimmel CA. 1978. Depression of humoral immunity in rats following chronic developmental lead Exposure. Journal of .Environmental Pathology and Toxicology 1(4), 397-402.
Machlin LJ. 1991. Vitamin E in Machlin LJ .ed. Handbook of vitamins. Newyork: Marcel Dekker 99-144.
Mahaffey KR, Haseman JD, Goyer RA. 1973. Dose-response to lead ingestion in rats on low dietary calcium. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine 83, pp. 92-100.
Mc Cabe ML, Lawrence DA. 1990. The heavy metal lead exhibits B cell–stimulatory factor activity by enhancing B Cell Ia expression and differentiation. The Journal of Immunology. 145(2), 671-677.
Mestek O, Deyl Z, Miksik I, Novotna J, Pfeifer I, Herget J. 1998. Accumulation of lead in tissues after its administration in drinking water to laboratory rats. Physiological Research 47, 197-202.
Mézes M, Virag G, Barta M, Abouzeid AD. 1996. Effect of lipid peroxide loading on lipid peroxidation and on the glutathione and cytochrome systems in rabbits. Acta Veterinaria. Hungarica 44(4), 443-450.
Michael CH. 2010. Heavy metal Encyclopedia of Earth. In, Monosson E. and Cleveland C. National Council for Science and the Environment. Eds Washington DC.
Ming Z, Fan YJ, Yang X, Lautt WW. 2006. Synergistic protection by S-adenosylmethionine with vitamins C and E on liver injury induced by thioacetamide in rats. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 40(4), 617-624.
Naito HK. 1984. Cholesterol. Kaplan A et al. Clinical Chemistry The C.V. Mosby Co. St Louis. Torron. Princeton 1194-11206 and 437.
Niki E, Yamamoto Y, Takahashi M, 1988. Free radical-mediated damage of blood and its inhibition by antioxydants. Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology (Tokyo) 34, 507-512.
Null G. 1994. The antioxidant vitamin C. Townsend Letter for doctors P. 1-19.
Okediran BS, Abam E, Odukoya OO, Adamson I, Ademuyiwa O. 2009. Membrane, intracellular, plasma and urinary sodium and potassium in occupational lead exposure: effects of vitamin C supplementation, Trace Elements and Electrolytes. 26(2), 49-59.
Pastoret PP, Govaerts A, Bazin H. 1990. Medecine Science, Flammarion pp. 411-695.
Patra RC, Swarup D, Dwivedi SK. 2001. Antioxidant effects of -tocopherol, ascorbic acid and L-methionine on lead induced oxidative stress to the liver kidney and brain in rats. Toxicology 162(2), 81-88.
Patra RC, Swarup D. 2000. Effect of lead on erythrocytic antioxidant defense, lipid peroxide level and thiol groups in calves. Research in Veterinary Science 68(1), 71-74.
Pinkerton LE, Raymond E, Biagini RE, Ward EM et al. 1998. Immunologic finding among lead-exposed workers. American Journal of Industrial Medicine 33, 400-408.
Queiroz MLS, Almeida M, Gallâo ML, Hoehr NF. 1993. Defective neutrophil function in workers occupationaly exposed to lead. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology 72(2), 73-77.
Revis NW, Major TC, Horton CY. 1980. The effects of calcium, magnesium, lead or cadmium on lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerosis in the pigeon. Journal of Environmental Pathology and Toxicology 4(2-3), 293-303.
Ribarov SR, Binov LC, Benchev IC. 1981. the effect of lead on haemoglobin-catalysed lipid Peroxidation. Biochemica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-Lipids and Lipid Metabolism 664, 453-459.
Routt RJ. Charles D. 1979. Evolution of the humoral immune response of children with low level lead exposure. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and toxicology 16(1), pp. 112-117.
Serrill S, Jefferson D, Quick J, Mengel CE. 1971. Effect of acetylsalicylic acid and ascorbic acid on oxygen toxicity. Aerospace Medicine 42(4), pp. 436-438.
Shah F, Kasi TG, Afridi HI, Kazi N, Baig JA, Shah AB, Khan S, Kolashi NF, Wadhwa SK. 2013. Evaluation of status of trace and toxic metals in biological samples (scalp hair, blood, and urine) of normal and anemic children of two age groups. Biological Trace Element Research 141(1-3), 131-149.
Shalan MG, Mostafa MS, Hassouna MM, 2005. Amelioration of lead toxicity on rat liver with vitamin C and silymarin supplements. Toxicology 206(1), 1-15.
Sienra-Monge JJ, Ramirez-Aguilar M, Moreno-Macias H, Reyes-Ruiz NI, Del Rio-Navarro BE, Ruiz-Navarro MX. 2004. Antioxidant supplementation and nasal inflammatory responses among young asthmatics exposed to high levels of ozone. Clinical and Experimental Immunology 138(2), 317-322.
Simon JA. 2003. Relatioship of ascorbic acid to blood Pb levels. JAMA, jun 23-30. 24, 281.
Upasani CD, Balaraman R. 2001. Effect of vitamin E , vitamin C and spirulina on the levels of membrane bound enzymes and lipids in some organs of rats exposed to lead. Indian Journal of pharmacology 33, 185-191.
Vargas H, Castello C, Posadas F, Escalante B, 2003. Acute lead exposure induces renal haeme oxygenas-1 and decreases urinary Na excretion, Human and Experimental Toxicology 22, 237-244.
Weisskopf MG, Jain N, Nie H, Sparrow D, Vokonas. 2009. A prospective study of bone lead concentration and death from all causes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer in the Department of Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study. Journal Circulation 120(12), 1056-1064.
Wick M. 1998. Iron metabolism and its disorders, In: Thomas L, editor. Clinical laboratory diagnostics. 1st ed. Frankfurt: The-Books p. 268-73.
Wolff SP. 1994. Ferrous ion oxidation in presence of ferric ion indicator xylenol orange for measurement of hydroperoxides. Methods in Enzymology 233, 182-189.
Yaqoob P, Newsholme EA, Calder PC. 1994. The effect of dietary lipid manipulation on rat lymphocytes subsets and proliferation. Immunology 82(4), 603-610.
Attenuation of Pb toxicity by virgin olive oil and vitamin C.
J. Bio. Env. Sci. 11(4), 131-140, October 2017.
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)