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Assessment of heavy metals in seasonal lakes near balloki head works and comparison of their water quality

By: Muhammad Salman Mukhtar, Madiha Ijaz, Sajid RashidAhmad3, Sustainable

Key Words: Heavy metal contamination, Seasonal lakes at risk, Water pollutants, Water quality parameters, Disturbance in aquatic ecosystem

J. Bio. Env. Sci. 9(1), 93-105, July 2016.


Five seasonal lakes situated near Balloki Head Works near River Ravi in Qasur district, Punjab, Pakistan were studied for the comparison of their water quality and heavy metals contamination in water, sediments and hydrophytes of the lakes. In the assessment of water quality physicochemical parameters i.e. pH, Electrical Conductivity, Dissolved Oxygen, Salinity, Total Dissolved Solids, Temperature, Nitrates, Phosphates, Sulphates and Chlorides were selected to be determined. Presence of Pathogenic bacteria (Total Choliforms) was equally determined using most probable counting number method. These all marked parameters were found within the permissible range for the propagation of aquatic life established by USEPA and Punjab Environmental Quality Standards (PEQS). The process of assessment of heavy metals in the lakes was started with collection of samples on fortnightly bases for two months and 4 time sampling was done. Samples of water, sediments and hydrophytes were collected, these samples were acid digested and analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer for heavy metals. Three heavy metals i.e. Zinc, Copper and Chromium were assessed in water, sediments and two types of aquatic plants namely Typha angustifolia and Persicaria amphibian and their concentration was high in samples of sediments, less in Hydrophytes and little in samples of water. In this wake land encroaching for agriculture, restaurants and other purposes should be checked strictly to reduce the inlet of heavy metals into these lakes.


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