Assessment of Genetic diversity of Gymnema sylvestre (Retz.) R.Br. from Western Ghats and Eastern India, India
By: Poonam K. Rathore, Samreen Madihalli, Satisha Hegde, Harsha V. Hegde, Rasika M. Bhagwat, Vidya S. Gupta, Sanjiva D. Kholkute, Timir baran Jha, Subarna Roy
Key Words: Genetic differentiation, ISSR, RAPD, Gene flow, Molecular markers.
J. Bio. Env. Sci. 9(1), 82-92, July 2016.
To device management strategies for conservation of plant, the complete knowledge of genetic variation within and among populations of plant species is essential. Inter simple sequence repeat and Random amplified polymorphic DNA markers were used to study the genetic diversity and population genetic structure in 117 accessions of 11 populations of Gymnema sylvestre, an important anti diabetic plant from Western Ghats and Eastern India of India. A total of 7 ISSR and 6 RAPD selected primers produced 3474 and 4104 discernible bands respectively, with 100% polymorphism. The Nei’s gene diversity (h) was found to be 0.27 and 0.26 at the species level based on ISSR and RAPD markers respectively indicating high genetic diversity. The Shannon’s index (I) was estimated to be 0.42 and 0.41 at the species level based on ISSR and RAPD markers respectively. The analysis of molecular variance showed that the genetic variation was found equally within populations (ISSR = 55% and RAPD = 51%) and among populations (ISSR = 45% and RAPD = 49%) both. In addition, Nei’s differentiation coefficient (GST) was found to be high (ISSR = 0.70 and RAPD = 0.60) and the gene flow (Nm) was low (ISSR = 0.21 and RAPD = 0.33), confirming the high population genetic differentiation. There was high genetic differentiation and the low gene flow in this species of plant, which suggests that conservation should emphasis on preserving the populations and which will also help the concerned authorities in designing strategies on the conservation of G. sylvestre.