Sorghum bicolor L. moench (Poaceae) extract efficiency in the treatment of induced anemia. Experimental study on Wistar rats
By: M. Sènou, A.P. Tchogou, T.V. Dougnon, A. Agossadou, F. Assogba, E.G. Kinsiclounon, H. Koudokpon, L. Fah, B. Fanou, D.C. Akpovi, G.B.J. Énou, A. Lalèyè, F. Loko
Key Words: Sorghum bicolor, Anemia, Immature cell.
Int. J. Biosci. 8(4), 62-71, April 2016.
Sorghum bicolor is a medicinal plant used in Benin to treat anemia. This study aimed to evaluate its therapeutic efficacy in anemia treatment. An aqueous extraction of Sorghum bicolor leaves was carried out and analyzed. Five groups of five Wistar rats each were formed. The rats of four groups were rendered anemic by injection of phenylhydrazine (hemolysis) in the first two days D0 and D1. From the second to the fifteenth day (D2 to D15), anemic groups were gavaged either by the extract of Sorghum bicolor at 200 or 300 mg/kg body weight/day, or by vitafer, a reference drug against anemia. The last anemic group was not treated. The group of non-anemic rats served as a control. Blood samples were collected for all rats on days D0, D2, D7, D10 and D15 to assess blood count and osmotic resistance of red blood cells. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of catechol tannins, flavonoids, leucoanthocyanes, steroids, cardenolides, reducing compounds and coumarins. The extract like the vitafer corrected anemia in two weeks by increased stimulation of hemoglobin synthesis, production and the early release of immature red blood cells and its effect was dose dependent. Its action was quite specific and did not affect platelet lineage. Sorghum bicolor has an excellent therapeutic efficacy and may be considered for transformation into improved traditional medicines (ITM) after study of its biological tolerance and appropriate clinical trials.