Role of extrapolative factors in the development of Hyperprolactinemia Mediated Depression (HMD) in schizophrenics susceptible to thyroid disorders
By: Arif Malik, Shamaila Saleem, Muhammad Abdul Basit Ashraf, Muhammad Asif, Sulayman Waquar, Mahmood Husain Qazi, Qasir Abbas, Asim Iqbal, Kashif Kamran, Mohammad Zahid Mustafa, Ahmad Zaheer, Muhammad Arshad, Amir Raza, Sabra Akbar, Mahmood Rasool
Key Words: Schizophrenic, Hyperprolactinemia mediated depression, Thyroid disorders
Int. J. Biosci. 9(5), 183-189, November 2016.
A cross sectional prospective study was designed to find out the prophetic effect of hyperprolactinemia mediated depression (HMD) in schizophrenics susceptible to thyroid disorders. One hundred newly diagnosed patients (61 males and 29 females) suffering from schizophrenia in the age group of 24-67 years were recruited in the study. Fifty age and sex matched, healthy individuals (25 males and 25 females) were included as controls (23-63 Years). Important biomarkers like T3 (Triiodothyronine), T4 (Thyroxine), TSH (Thyroid stimulating hormone), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), Dopamine, Prolactin, Estradiol, Serotonin, Zn and Cu were estimated and compared in schizophrenics and controls. Higher levels of FT4, TSH, TNF-α, Zn, prolactin and serotonin were recorded (25.12±3.05 pmol/L, 4.48±.18 IU/L, 34.75±2.09pg/ml, 0.30±0.0019mg/L, 30.60±2.08ng/ml and 175.85±7.06ng/ml respectively) in schizophrenia patients as compared to healthy controls. While lower levels of FT3, Cu, dopamine and estradiol were measured (3.94±0.35μg/dl, 1.03±0.056mg/L, 3.87±0.668pg/ml and 6.75±0.97pg/ml respectively) in schizophrenia patients as compared to healthy controls. The present study depicts that hypoestrogenism and disturbed prolactin-serotonin-dopamine interactions are the major role players in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Hypoestrogenism and reduced copper levels affect dopamine levels negatively while high levels of zinc induce serotonin production, both of these effects result in hyperprolactinemia mediated depression (HMD) and susceptibility to hyperthyroidism. Thus, by regulating these factors not only schizophrenic symptoms but also progression to thyroid disorders can be controlled.