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Prevalence of antibiotics and antibiotic resistant bacteria in wastewaters – An impact of untreated municipal and hospital wastewater

By: Maqsood Ahmad, Muhammad Farhan, Muhammad Kamran, Zahid Ali Butt, Naima Raza, Zaffar Iqbal, Rifat Hayat Lodhi, Abdul Wahid, Yuechun Zhao

Key Words: Hospital wastewater, Antibiotics, Resistant bacteria.

Int. J. Biosci. 11(3), 232-239, September 2017.


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Present study investigated the prevalence of some antibiotics viz., ciprofloxacin (CIP), levofloxacin (LFO) and ofloxacin (OFL) in hospital wastewater and seasonal drain receiving untreated municipal wastewater from Sialkot city. Bacterial strains including Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhi) were isolated from the raw hospital wastewaters and from the drain to investigate antibiotic resistance level. Concentration of CIP, LFO and OFL in hospital wastewater was measured up to 189µg L-1, 142µg L-1and 116µg L-1 respectively. No antibiotic was detected from the drain water upstream to the first municipal wastewater entering from the city. From the water samples, collected from downstream to the city all the three antibiotics, for instance CIP (0.091µg L-1), LFO (0.078µg L-1) and OFL (0.073µg L-1) were detected. Isolates of E. coli (n=20) collected from hospital wastewater were 90% resistant to CIP, 75% resistant to LFO and 60% resistant to OFL. While the isolates of S. typhi (n=20) were 95%, 85% and 85% resistant to CIP, LFO and OFL respectively. Isolates of E. coli (n=20) collected from the drain downstream to the city were 75%, 70% and 55% were resistant to CIP, LFO and OFL respectively, while the isolates of S. typhi (n=20) were 95%, 65% and 70% resistant to CIP, LFO and OFL respectively. This study revealed the occurrence of antibiotics and antibiotic resistant bacteria in hospital wastewater and receiving water bodies, indicating a potential health threat especially in developing countries with no wastewater treatment facility.

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Prevalence of antibiotics and antibiotic resistant bacteria in wastewaters – An impact of untreated municipal and hospital wastewater

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Maqsood Ahmad, Muhammad Farhan, Muhammad Kamran, Zahid Ali Butt, Naima Raza, Zaffar Iqbal, Rifat Hayat Lodhi, Abdul Wahid, Yuechun Zhao.
Prevalence of antibiotics and antibiotic resistant bacteria in wastewaters – An impact of untreated municipal and hospital wastewater.
Int. J. Biosci. 11(3), 232-239, September 2017.
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