Phytochemistry and Antibacterial Assay of Fruit, Leaf and Stem Extracts of Solanum nigrum L. in Different Solvent
By: Mubsher Mazher, Nafeesa Zahid Malik, Muhammad Riaz, Adil Hussain, Yasir Ali, Qum Qum Noshad
Key Words: Solanum nigrum, Solvent extraction, Phytochemical analysis, Antibacterial activity
Int. J. Biosci. 9(6), 129-136, December 2016.
Solanum nigrum L. (black nightshade) is a wild vegetable with numerous ethnomedicinal potentials. In this study phytochemical analysis and antibacterial activity of fruit, leaf and stem extracts of Solanum nigrum L. prepared in four solvents i.e., ethanol, chloroform, petroleum ether and distilled water were inspected. Phytochemical examination showed the presence of significant constituents like, saponins, tannins, steroids, terpenoids, alkaloids and flavonoids. Antibacterial activity was determined by zone of Inhibition using agar well diffusion method in contradiction of five bacterial strains viz. Basillus subtilis, Salmonella paratyphi, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris and Vibrio cholera. Zone of inhibition ranged from 8.5 mm to 33.0 mm where stem extracts in chloroform showed no detectable zone of inhibition against B. subtilis. Leaf and stem extracts also showed no detectable zone of inhibition against S. paratyphi. The MIC value measured using serial dilution method against bacterial strains ranged from 250μg/ml to 1000μg/ml. Fruit extracts in ethanol and chloroform both, showed greater zone of inhibition against V. cholera as compared to tetracycline. This investigation sanctions that the ethanol and chloroform extracts from fruit of Solanum nigrum L. possess potential antibacterial action.