PCR based detection of Salmonella from fresh and processed chicken meat from Quetta, Pakistan
By: Hafsa Sunniya, Mumtaz Ali Sanjrani, Abdul Samad, Kaleemullah, Muhammad Naeem, Muhammad Rizwan, Summiya Allah Yar, Safiullah Khan Achakzai, Malalai Shakoor
Key Words: Salmonella, Chicken meat, PCR, HACCP, Quetta
Int. J. Biosci. 10(4), 363-371, April 2017.Certificate
Salmonella is the most common cause of food borne infections worldwide. Approximately causing 16 million cases of typhoid fever, 1.3 million fatalities all around the world each year. The primary vehicle of transmission of the pathogen is Chicken meat which is largely consumed throughout the country. Due to lack of good hygiene and proper handling, pathogen is easily transmitted from meat to consumers causing diseases. The present study aims to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella in fresh and processed chicken meat through Polymerase Chain Reaction using Inv A gene as a genetic target. Total of 150 samples of raw chicken meat were collected in which 100 of freshly slaughtered samples were collected in pre-sterilized plastic bags and 50 of processed chicken samples were obtained in their packaging, from different shops and markets of Quetta. Out of 150 samples 37 (24.6%) were found Salmonella positive and 113 (75.4%) were negative. In raw chicken and processed chicken the contamination rate was found 26% and 22% respectively. The study revealed that many shops may not practices good hygiene which is making Salmonella a potential threat to consumer’s health. To control the food-borne illnesses and to keep the microbial load of raw and processed meat in check, the food safety requirements should be followed strictly in accordance with HACCP (Hazard analysis critical control point).
PCR based detection of Salmonella from fresh and processed chicken meat from Quetta, Pakistan
Adeyanju GT, Ishola O. 2014. Salmonella and Escherichia coli contamination of poultry meat from processing plant and retail market in Ibadan, Oyo State Nigeria. Springe plus 3, 139.
Ahmad MUD, Sarwar A, Najeeb MI, Nawaz M, Anjum AA, Ali MA, Mansur N. 2013. Assessment of Microbial load of Raw Meat at abattoirs and retail outlets.The Journal of Animal & Plant Sciences 23(3), 745-748.
Akbar A, Anal AK. 2013. Prevalence and antibiogram study of Salmonella and Staphylococcus aureus in poultry meat. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 3(2), 163-168.
Akhtar F, Hussain I, Khan A, Rahman SU. 2010. Prevalence and antibiogram studies of Salmonella enteritidis isolated from human and poultry sources. Pakistan Veternay Journal 30(1), 25-28.
Asif M, Rahman H, Qasim M, Khan TA, Ullah W, Jie Y. 2017. Molecular detection and antimicrobial resistance profile of zoonotic Salmonella enteritidis isolated from broiler chickens in Kohat, Pakistan. Journal of the Chinese Medical Association1-4.
Barua H, Biswas PK, Olsen KEP, Shil SK, Christensen JP. 2013. Molecular Characterization of Motile Serovars of Salmonella enterica from Breeder and Commercial Broiler Poultry Farms in Bangladesh. PLoS ONE 8(3), 57811.
Bhunia AK. 2008. Foodborne microbial pathogens: Mechanisms and pathogenesis. United States of America: Springer Science + Business Media LLC.
Dallal MMS, Taremi M, Gachkar L, Modarressi S, Sanaei M, Bakhtiari R, Yazdi MKS, Zali MR. 2009. Characterization of antibiotic resistant patterns of Salmonella serotypes isolated from beef and chicken samples in Tehran Jundishapur. Journal of Microbiology 2(4), 124- 131.
Dufrenne J, Ritmeester W, Delfgou-van Asch E, Leusden FV, Jonge RD. 2001. Quantification of the contamination of chicken and chicken products in the Netherlands with Salmonella and Campylobacter. Journal of Food Prot 64(4), 538-541.
Dumen E, Aydin A, Issa G. 2015. Prevelence, serological typing and PCR sensitivity comparison of Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella enteridis and Salmonella spp. isolated from Raw Chicken carcasses. Kafkas Univ Vet Fak Derg 21(5), 653-658.
El‑Sharkawy H, Tahoun A, El‑Gohary AA, El‑Abasy M, El‑Khayat F, Gillespie T, Kitade Y, Hafez HM, Neubauer H, El‑Adawy H. 2017. Epidemiological, molecular characterization and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella enterica serovars isolated from chicken farms in Egypt. Gut Pathog 9, 8.
Foley SL, Nayak R, Hanning IB, Johnson TJ, Han J, Ricke SC. 2011. Population Dynamics of Salmonella enterica Serotypes in Commercial Egg and Poultry Production. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 4273-4279.
Gharieb RM, Tartor YH, Khedr MHE. 2015. Non-Typhoidal Salmonella in poultry meat and diarrhoeic patients: prevalence, antibiogram, virulotyping, molecular detection and sequencing of class Iintegrons in multidrug resistant strains. Gut Pathog 7, 34.
Hassan ARHA, Salam HSH, Abdel-Latef GK. 2016. Serological identification and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella isolates from broiler carcasses and human stools in Beni-Suef, Egypt. Journal of basic and applied sciences 5, 202-207.
Hassanein R, Ali SFH, El-Malek AMA, Moemen AM, Elsayh KI. 2011. Detection and identification of Salmonella species in minced beef and chicken meats by using Multiplex PCR in Assiut city. Veterinary World 4 (1), 5-11.
Henry I, Chemaly M, Granier S, Lalande F, Courtillon C, Salvat G, Cardinale E. 2015. Epidemiological Analysis of Salmonella Enterica Serovar typhimurium and Serovar isolates determined by Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis and Antibiotic Susceptibility: Comparison of Isolates from Broiler Chickens, Humans and the Environment in Reunion Island. The Open Veterinary Science Journal 9, 10-18.
Ishola O, Taiwo AG. 2014. Frozen Retail Poultry Meat contact surfaces as sources of Salmonella and Escherichia coli contamination in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. American Journal of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology 24, 81-85.
Jan Hudgzicki. 2009. Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion susceptibility Test, Protocol.
Kabir SML. 2010. Avian Colibacillosis and Salmonellosis: A Closer Look at Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, Control and Public Health Concerns Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 7, 89-114.
Kotetishvili M, Stine OC, Kreger A, Morris JG, Sulakvelizde A. 2002. Multilocus sequence typing for characterization of clinical and environmental Salmonella strains. J. Clin. Microbiol 40, 1626-1635.
Koyuncu S, Andersson MG, Ha¨ggblom P. 2010. Accuracy and Sensitivity of Commercial PCR-Based Methods for Detection of Salmonella enterica in Feed. Applied and Envirnmental Microbiolog 2815-2822.
Li Y, Xie X, Xu X, Wang X, Chang H, Wang C, Wang A, He Y, Yu H, Wang X, Zeng, M. 2014. Nontyphoidal Salmonella Infection in Children with Acute Gastroenteritis: Prevalence, Serotypes, and Antimicrobial Resistance in Shanghai, China. Foodborne Pthogens and disease, Volume 11, Number 3.
Lu Y, Zhoa H, Sun J, Liu Y, Zhou X, Beier RC, Wu G, Hou X. 2014. Characterization of Multidrug resistance Salmonella enteric serovers Indiana and Enteridis from chicken in Eastern China. PLoS ONE 9(5), e96050.
Minas K, McEwan NR, Jamie C, Scott KP. 2011. Optimization of a high-throughput CTAB-based protocol for the extraction of qPCR-grade DNA from rumen fluid, plant and bacterial pure cultures. FEMS Microbiol Lett 325. 162-169.
Mir IA, Wani SA, HussainI, Qureshi SD, Bhat MA, Nishikawa Y. 2010. Molecular epidemiology and in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella isolated from poultry in Kashmir. Rev. Sci. Tech. Off. int. Epiz 29(3), 677-686.
Moschonas G, Geornaras I, Stopforth JD, Wach D, Woerner DR, Belk KE, Smith GC, Sofos JN. 2012. Antimicrobials for reduction of Salmonella contamination in uncooked, surface-browned breaded chicken products. Journal Food Prot 75(6), 1023-1028.
Nader MI, Rasheed MN, Hammed HH. 2015. Molecular Identification of Salmonella typhimurium from Chicken, meat and Human by PCR. Medical Genetics, Cellular & Molecular Biology, Pharmaceutical & Food Sciences.
Oliveira SD, Rodenbusch CR, Cé MC, Rocha SL, Canal CW. 2003. Evaluation of selective and non-selective enrichment PCR procedures for Salmonella detection. Lett. Appl. Microbiol 36(4), 217-221.
Plummer RAS, Bllisset SJT, Dodd CER. 1995. Salmonella contamination of retail chicken products sold in the UK. Journal of Food Protection, Vol. 58, No. 8, Pages 843-846.
Putturu R, Thirtham M, Eevuri TR. 2013. Antimicrobial sensitivity and resistance of Salmonella Enteritidis isolated from natural samples185-188.
Rahn K, De Grandis DS, Clarke RC, McEwen SA, Galan JE, Ginocchoio C, Curtiss R, Gyles CL. 1992. Amplication of an inv Agene sequence of Salmonellaty phimurium by polymerase chain reaction as a specific method of detection of Salmonella. Moll Cell Probes 6, 271-279.
Saad M, Nada S, Samar S, El Sattar A. 2015. Incidence of Salmonella species in chicken cut-up carcasses and chicken products. Benha Veternary Medical Journal, Vol. 29, NO. 2: 29‐35.
Saeed AA, Taher KN, Al-Nassarawi HAA. 2013. Detection of Salmonella typhimurium in Chicken meat imported in the local markets of Diwaniya city by using PCR technique, Al-Qadisiya. Journalof Vet. Med. Sci 12, 2.
Sajid S, Sajid M, Hashmi RH. 2015. Isolation studies on the Prevalence of Salmonella inn chicken organs, eggs and feed components. Journal Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad, 27(3), 530-3.
Salehi T, Mahzounieh M, Saeedzadeh A. 2005. Detection of Inv A Gene in isolated Salmonella from Broilers by PCR method. Int. Journal of Poultry Sciences 4(8), 557-559.
Shah AH, Korejo NA. 2012. Antimicrobial Resistance Profile of Salmonella Serovars Isolated from Chicken Meat. J. Vet. Anim. Sci 2, 40-46.
Shahzad A, Mahmood MS, Hussain I, Siddique F, Abbas RZ. 2012. Prevalence of Salmonella species in Hen eggs and eggs storing-trays collected from poultry farms and marketing outlets of Faisalabad, Pakistan. J. Agri. Sci 49(4), 565-568.
Shanmugasamy M, Velayutham T, Rajeswar J. 2011. Inv A gene specific PCR for detection of Salmonella from broilers. Vet. World 4(12), 562-564.
Soomro AH, Khaskheli M, Bhutto MB. 2010. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella serovars isolated from poultry meat in Hyderabad, Pakistan. Turk. J. Vet. Anim. Sci 34(5), 455-460.
Zhu J, Wang Y, Song X, Cui S, Xu H, Yang B, Huang DJ, Liu G, Chen Q, Zhoug G, Chen Q, Li F. 2014. Prevalence and quantification of Salmonella contamination in raw chicken carcasses at the retail in China. Food Control 44, 198-202.
Ziech RE, Lampugnani C, Perin-Sereno AP, others MJ. 2016. Multidrug resistance and ESBL-Producing Salmonella spp isolated from Broiler Processing Plants. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology 47, 191-195.
PCR based detection of Salmonella from fresh and processed chicken meat from Quetta, Pakistan.
Int. J. Biosci. 10(4), 363-371, April 2017.
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)