Methodological development of cytokine as a biomarker
By: Wardah Safdar, Maria Aftab, Beenish Saddique, Irsa Akhtar, Hamid Bashir, Muhammad Bilal, Aleena Sumrin
Key Words: Cytokine, Biomarker, Antibody arrays
Int. J. Biosci. 9(6), 55-65, December 2016.
Biomarker research has rapidly grown in the past few years owing mainly to the advanced development in research tools that provide simultaneous detection of a number of analytes in specific disease states. Cytokines are the polypeptide families released in inflammatory responses that control the immune system and their abnormal levels in the body can lead to multiple diseases. This review provides a detailed and systematic account of the steps in the development of cytokine biomarker. In this regard, serum or blood samples can be obtained from diseased persons and healthy individuals, wherein healthy samples can be regarded as reference standards. After processing according to standard procedures, relative quantitation of analytes can be performed by employing different assays like ELISA or advanced technologies like Luminex multiplex immunoassay and Mesoscale discovery. The statistical analysis can be performed with appropriate software’s like Bio-Plex Manager 5.0 and Master Plex QT software’s or simply with SPSS. Subsequently, these assays can be validated according to the US Food and Drug Administration guidelines to verify the sensitivity and affinity of biomarker since the development parameters vary in every disease condition. Variations in cytokine levels can serve as a biomarker in certain ailments and careful experimentation paired with advanced technologies can be used for their exploitation.