Meal worm (Tenebrio molitor) as potential alternative source of protein supplementation in broiler
By: Ibrar Hussain, Sarzamin Khan, Asad Sultan, Naila Chand, Rafiullah Khan, Waqas Alam, Naseer Ahmad
Key Words: Broiler, Mealworm, Growth performance, Carcass yield, Antibody titer
Int. J. Biosci. 10(4), 255-262, April 2017.Certificate
Protein is major nutrient costing higher value compared to other counterparts. A number of attempts have been made since long to find substitutes that could act as an effective and cheaper source of protein in poultry diet. Currently there has a great interest to assess the potential of different types insect meal in poultry nutrition as protein source. A preliminary study was undertaken to examine the potential benefits of locally produced meal worm supplementation in broiler birds on feed intake, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR), dressing percentage, antibody titer again ND and mortality. At the end birds from different experimental groups were slaughtered, dressed and cooked for meat sensory qualities. Meal worm larvae were grown at laboratory level, killed with 5% concentrated salt solution and oven dried 40ºC for 48-72 hrs. Meal worm is rich in protein 45.83%, lysine 4.51% and methionine 1.34%. A total of 120 day-old broiler chicks were randomly allotted to four replicated (n=3; 10 birds/replicate) dietary treatments i.e. WM-1, WM-2, WM-3 that received 50, 100, 150g meal worm, respectively with WM-0 served as control. Supplementation of meal worm did not affect feed intake, however significantly improved body weight gain of birds in all supplemented groups by 84 to 185 g in absolute. FCR of WM-0 was poor (2.01) and significantly improved in WM-3 group (1.75). Carcass yield was improved in all meal worm supplemented groups compared to control. It was interesting to note that sensory meant qualities including heamagglutination antibody titer against Newcastle disease and mortality among different groups was not significantly altered. It could be deduced from present findings that meal worm has the potential to improve bird performance with affecting meat quality. However, further research work is warranted to replace soybean with worm meal to examine it impact as alternative protein in minimizing feed cost without compromising bird performance.
Meal worm (Tenebrio molitor) as potential alternative source of protein supplementation in broiler
Abidin Z, Khatoon A, Numan M. 2011. Mycotoxins in broilers: pathological alterations Digestibility of Super Worm Meal in Red Tilapia Juvenile. Pak Vet J 32(4), 489-493.
Akpodiete OJ, Inoni OE. 2000. Economics of production of broiler chickens fed maggot meal as replacement for fish. Nig. J. Anim. Prod 27: 59-63 and Escherichia coli within the gastrointestinal tract of the lesser mealworm beetle, Alphitobius diaperinus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Poultry Science 88, 1553-1558
Aniebo AO, Erondu ES, Owen OJ. 2009. Replacement of fish meal with maggot meal in African catfish (Clariasgariepinus) diets. Revista UDO Agrícola 9: 666-671.
Awoniyi TAM, Adebayo IA, Aletor VA. 2004. A study of some erythrocyte indices and bacteriological analysis of broiler chickens raised on maggot-meal based diets. Int. J. Poult. Sci 2, 386-390.
Bhuiyan AKMA, Begum NN, Begum M, Hoq ME. 1989. Survey of potential fish feed ingredients of Bangladesh on the basis of their availability and biochemical composition. Final Report. FRI Research Progress Report 1. Freshwater station, Fri, 70.
Bhuiyan MZ. 1998. Complete replacement of fish meal by full fat soybean and supplementation of lysine and methionine to broilers. M.S. Thesis, Dept. of Poultry Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University Mymensingh.
Bidlingmeyer BA, Cohen SA, Tarvin TL, Frost B. 1987. A new, rapid, high sensitivity analysis of amino acid in food type samples Journal of Association Official Analytical Chemistry 70, pp. 241-247.
Bolu SA, Adakeja A. 2008. Effects of poultry offal meal and soyabean meal mixtures on the performance and carcass quality of broiler chicks. Afri. J. of food Agri. Nutri. and Develop 8(4), 441-450.
Campbell JM, Loyons DB, Sarazin MJ. 1989. Canadian Beetles (Coleoptera):
Chaudhary RC. 1998. Indonesian Coordinated Rice Testing Network (ICRTN). World Bank-ARMPII, CRIFC, Bogor, Indonesia 152 pp.
Choudhury K, Das J, Saikia S, Sengupta S, Choudhury SK. 1998. Supplementation of broiler diets with antibiotic and probiotic fed muga silkworm pupae meal. Indian J. Poultry Sci 33, 339-342.
Collavo A, Glew RH, Huang YS, Chuang LT, Bosse R, Paoletti MG. 2005, House cricket small-scale farming. In M.G. Paoletti, ed., Ecological implications of minilivestock: potential of insects, rodents, frogs and snails pp. 519–544. New Hampshire, Science Publishers.
Daghir NJ. 1975. Studies on poultry by–product meal in broiler and layer rations. World Poult. Sci 31, 2001-2016.
De Foliart G, Dunkel FV, Gracer D. 2009. The food insects newsletter–chronicle of changing culture. Salt LakeCity: Aardvark Global Publishing, Vol (10) p. 414.
Deng SG, Peng ZY, Chen F, Yang P, Wu T. 2004. Amino acid composition and anti-anaemia action of hydrolyzed offal protein from Harengula Zunasi Bleeker Food Chemistry pp. 97-102.
Dutta A, Dutta S, Kumari S. 2012. Growth of poultry chicks fed on formulated feed containing silk worm pupae meal as protein supplement and commercial diet. Online Journal of Animal and Feed Research vol 2, 303-307.
Etuk EB, Esonu BO, Udedibe AB. 2003. Evaluation of toasted pigeon pea (Cajanuscajan) seeds meal as replacement for soyabean meal and maize in broiler finisher diet.
Eyo AA. 2006. Fish Processing Technology in the Tropics.1st Ed. University of Ilorin. Press. Ilorin Nigeria.
Gould GE, Moses HE. 1951. Lesser mealworm infestation in a broiler house. Journal of Economic Entomology 44, 265.
Habib MAD, Hasan MR. 1995. Evaluation of silkworm pupae as dietary protein source for Asian catfish, Clariasbatrachus (L) fingerlings.Bangladesh Journal of Aquaculture 17, 1-7.
Huis AV, Itterbeeck JV, Klunder H, Mertens E, Halloran A, Muirand G, Vantomme P. 2013. Edible insects: Future Prospects for Food and Feed Security. FAO Forestry paper 171. Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences 4(4), 319-331.
Jan MT, Shah P, Hollington PA, Khan MJ, Shohail Q. 2009. Agriculture research: Design and Analysis. Ist Ed. Dept of Agronomy, The Uni. Agri. Peshawar, Pakistan.
Karimi A. 2006. The effects of varying fish mealinclusion levels (%) on performance of broiler Injuries to Crops, Ornamentals, Stored Products and Buildings. Research Branch, Agricultural Canada.
Khatun R, Azmal SA, Sarker MSK, Rashid MA, Hussain MA, Miah MY. 2005. Effect of silkworm pupae on the growth and egg production performance of rhode island red (RIR) pure line. International Journal of Poultry Science 4, 718-720.
Khatun R, Howlider MAR, Rahman MM, Hasanuzzaman M. 2003. Replacement of fish meal by silkworm pupae in broiler diets. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 6, 955-958.
Mc Donald P, Edwards RA, Greenhalgh JFD. 2002. Animal Nutrition. 6th Edition.Longman, London and New York. 543 pp.
Metcalf CL, Flint WP. 1962. Destructive and Useful Insects. 4th Edn., McGraw Hill, Mills and their Control. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, ISBN: 13: 9780660117485.
Monro HAV. 1969. Insect Pests in Cargo Ships. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, Nergui Ravzanaadii, Seong-Hyun Kim, Won Ho Choi, Seong-Jin Hong, and Nam Jung Kim, 2012. Nutritional Value of Mealworm, Tenebriomolitor as Food Source. International Journal Industrial Entomoly 1, 93-98.
Ng W-K, Liew FL, Ang LP, Wong KW. 2001. Potential of mealworm (Tenebrio of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus from the Lesser Mealworm), Alphitobiusdiaperinus (Panzer). Poultry Science 74, 45-49.
Ojewola GS, Okoye FC, Ukoha OA. 2005. Comparative utilization of three animal protein profile, by broiler chickens. Int. J. Poult. Sci., 4970: silkworm caterpillar (Anaphe infracta) meal as 462-467.
Okah and Onwunjiariri. 2012. evaluated the performance of finisher boilers fed with maggot meals as replacement for fish meal and found out that replacement of a 4.0% dietary fish meal with 50% maggot meal gave superior performance characteristics.
Okah U, Onwujiariri EB. 2012. Performance of finisher broiler chickens fed meal worm as are placement for fish meal. Journal of Agricultural Technology 8(2), 471-477 Ottawa, Ontario pp. 39.
Okubanjo AO, Apata ES, Babalola OO. 2014. Carcass and organoleptic qualities of chicken broilers fed maggot meal in replacement for dietary fish meal. American J. of Res. Communication 2(4), 147.
Oonincx DGAB, van Itterbeeck J, Heetkamp MJW, van den Brand H, van Loon JJA. 2010. An exploration on green gas and ammonia production by insects species suitable for animal or human consumption 0014445.
Pimental D, Dritschilo W, Krummel J, Kutzman J. 1975. Energy and land constraints in food protein production science 190, 754-761.
Pimental D, Dritschilo W, Krummel J, Kutzman J. 1975. Energy and land constraints in food protein production. Science 190, 754-61.
Rahman MA, Zaher M, Mazid MA, Haque MZ, Mahata SC. 1996. Replacement of costly fish meal by silkworm pupae in diet of mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Pakistan J. Sci. Ind. Res 39(1/4), 64-67.
Rahman, Jabir MD, Razak SA, Vikineswary S. 2012. Chemical Composition and Nutrient Determined with Larvae of the Yellow Mealworm, Tenebrio molitor L. J. Nutr 104, 1172-1177.
Ramos-Elorduy J. 1987. Are insects edible? Man’s attitudes toward eating insecta. Food Deficiency Studies and Perspectives 20, 78-83 (UNESCO Principle Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific).
Ramos-Elorduy J. 1987. Are insects edible? Man’s attitudes towards eating insect. Food deficiency studies and perspectives 20, 78-83.
Skewes PA, Monroe J1. 1991. The effects of darkling beetles on broiler performance. Poultry Sei 70, 1034-1036.
Tacon AGJ, Metian M. 2008. Global overview on the use of fish meal and fish oil in industrially compounded aquafeeds: Trends and future prospects. Aquaculture. 285. 146-158.
Teguia A, Beynen AC. 2005. Alternative feedstuffs for broilers in Cameroon. Livestock research for rural development 17(3).
Veldkamp T, van Duinkerken G, van Huis A, Lakemond CMM, Ottevanger E, Bosch G, van Boekel MAJS. 2012. Insects as a sustainable feed ingredient in pig and poultry diets – a feasibility study. Rapport 638 – Wageningen Livestock Research. http://www.wageningenur.nl/uploadmm/2/8/0/f26765b9-98b2-49a7-ae43 5251c5b694f6 234247%5B1%5D.
Wijayasinghe MS, Rajaguru AS. 1977. Use of silkworm (Bombyx mori L.) pupae as a protein supplement in poultry rations. J. Natl. Sci. Coun. Sri Lanka 5, 95-104.
Meal worm (Tenebrio molitor) as potential alternative source of protein supplementation in broiler.
Int. J. Biosci. 10(4), 255-262, April 2017.
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)