International network for natural sciences – research journal
  • mendeley icon
  • linkedin icon
  • google plus icon
  • twitter icon
  • google scholar icon
  • facebook icon

Exogenous applications of plant hormones make wheat (Triticum aestivum) withstand the attack of salinity stress

By: Muzafar Iqbal, Muhammad Nadeem, Saima Jamil, Maqbool Ahmed, Tahira Altaf

Key Words: Keywords. Wheat, Auxins, Gibberellic acid, Salicylic acid, Cytokinins, Ethylene, Abscisic acid, Brassinosteroids, Methyl-jasmonate, Strigolactones.

Int. J. Biosci. 12(1), 375-385, January 2018.


Certification: ijb 2018 0264 [Generate Certificate]


Plant hormones are fundamental chemical messengers synthesized within the plants which mediate their growth and development, and also response to environmental factors. Salinity is an adverse abiotic stress that distresses the hormonal balance of plant. Consequently, these hormonal vacillations in plants adjust the cellular metabolic processes and therefore, plant hormones play a critical role in mitigating salinity-induced detrimental effects. We give an update about the role of multiple plant hormones (auxins, gibberellic acid, salicylic acid, cytokinins, ethylene, abscisic acid, brassinosteroids, methyl-jasmonate and strigolactones) to ameliorate salinity stress in wheat reap. To the best of authors’ awareness, this is first, merged, constructive review available about plant hormones role on wheat’s characteristics under salinity stress.

| Views 42 |

Exogenous applications of plant hormones make wheat (Triticum aestivum) withstand the attack of salinity stress

Afzal I, Basra S, Iqbal A. 2005. The effect of seed soaking with plant growth regulators on seedling vigor of wheat under salinity stress. Journal of Stress Physiology and Biochemistry 1, 6–14.

Afzal I, Basra S, Iqbal A. 2005. The effect of seed soaking with plant growth regulators on seedling vigor of wheat under salinity stress. Journal of Stress Physiology and Biochemistry 1, 6–14.

Afzal I, Basra SM, Farooq M, Nawaz A. 2006. Alleviation of salinity stress in spring wheat by hormonal priming with ABA, salicylic acid and ascorbic acid. Int. International Journal of Agriculture & Biology 8(1), 23-28.

Agami RA, Mohamed GF. 2013. Exogenous treatment with indole-3-acetic acid and salicylic acid alleviates cadmium toxicity in wheat seedlings. Ecotoxicology and environmental safety 94, 164-171.

Agarwal S, Sairam RK, Srivastava GC, Meena RC. 2005. Changes in antioxidant enzymes activity and oxidative stress by abscisic acid and salicylic acid in wheat genotypes. Biologia Plantarum 49(4), 541-550.

Ahmad M, Shahzad A, Iqbal M, Asif M, Hirani AH. 2013. Morphological and molecular genetic variation in wheat for salinity tolerance at germination and early seedling stage. Australian Journal of Crop Science 7(1), 66.

Akbari G, Sanavy SA, Yousefzadeh S. 2007. Effect of auxin and salt stress (NaCl) on seed germination of wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.). Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences. PJBS 10(15), 2557-2561.

Aldesuquy HS. 2000. Effect of indol-3-yl acetic acid on photosynthetic characteristics of wheat flag leaf during grain filling. Photosynthetica 38(1), 135-141.

Al-Whaibi MH, Siddiqui MH, Basalah MO. 2012. Salicylic acid and calcium-induced protection of wheat against salinity. Protoplasma 249(3), 769-778.

AM BN. 2011. Oxidative stress markers and antioxidant potential of wheat treated with phytohormones under salinity stress. Journal of Stress Physiology & Biochemistry 7(4).

Arfan M, Athar HR, Ashraf M. 2007. Does exogenous application of salicylic acid through the rooting medium modulate growth and photosynthetic capacity in two differently adapted spring wheat cultivars under salt stress? Journal of Plant Physiology 164(6), 685-694.

Ashraf M, Akram NA, Arteca RN, Foolad MR. 2010. The physiological, biochemical and molecular roles of brassinosteroids and salicylic acid in plant processes and salt tolerance. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 29(3), 162-190.

Ashraf M, Karim F, Rasul E. 2002. Interactive effects of gibberellic acid (GA 3) and salt stress on growth, ion accumulation and photosynthetic capacity of two spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars differing in salt tolerance. Plant growth regulation 36(1), 49-59.

Bakht J, Khan MJ, Shafi Mohammad, Khan MA, Sharif Mohammad. 2012. Effect of salinity and ABA application on proline production and yield in wheat genotypes. Pakistan Journal of Botany 44(3), 873-878.

Barakat N, Laudadio V, Cazzato E, Tufarelli V. 2013. Antioxidant Potential and Oxidative Stress Markers in Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Treated with Phytohormones under Salt-Stress Condition. International Journal of Agriculture & Biology 15(5).

Begum F, Karmoker JL, Fattah QA, Maniruzzaman AFM. 1992. The effect of salinity on germination and its correlation with K+, Na+, Cl− accumulation in germinating seeds of Triticum aestivum L. cv. Akbar. Plant and cell physiology 33(7), 1009-1014.

Bockheim JG, Gennadiyev AN. 2000. The role of soil-forming processes in the definition of taxa in Soil Taxonomy and the World Soil Reference Base. Geoderma 95(1), 53-72.

Carillo P, Annunziata MG, Pontecorvo G, Fuggi A, Woodrow P. 2011. Salinity stress and salt tolerance. In Abiotic Stress in Plants-Mechanisms and Adaptations. InTech.

Chetana M, Pallavi C, Mandavia MK, Lata R, Amol G. 2014. Influence of Brassinolide and Salicylic acid on biochemical parameters of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under salinity stress. Indian Journal of Agricultural Biochemistry 27(1), 73-76.

Colebrook EH, Thomas SG, Phillips AL, Hedden P. 2014. The role of gibberellin signalling in plant responses to abiotic stress. Journal of experimental biology 217(1), 67-75

Cyrus DP, Martin TJ, Reavell PE. 1997. Salt-water intrusion from the Mzingazi River and its effects on adjacent swamp forest at Richards Bay, Zululand, South Africa. Water Sa-Pretoria 23, 101-108.

Egamberdieva D. 2009. Alleviation of salt stress by plant growth regulators and IAA producing bacteria in wheat. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum 31(4), 861-864.

Egawa C, Kobayashi F, Ishibashi M, Nakamura T, Nakamura C, Takumi S. 2006. Differential regulation of transcript accumulation and alternative splicing of a DREB2 homolog under abiotic stress conditions in common wheat. Genes & genetic systems 81(2), 77-91.

Fahad S, Hussain S, Matloob A, Khan FA, Khaliq A, Saud S, Faiq M. 2015. Phytohormones and plant responses to salinity stress. a review. Plant growth regulation 75(2), 391-404.

FAO. Fact sheets. 1996. World Food Summit-November Rome, Italy. FAO

FAO. Land and plant nutrition management service. 2008.

Fazeli F, Ghorbanli M, Niknam V. 2007. Effect of drought on biomass, protein content, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in two sesame cultivars. Biologia Plantarum 51(1), 98-103.

Flowers TJ. 2004. Improving crop salt tolerance. Journal of Experimental botany 55(396), 307-319.

Grieve CM, Lesch SM, Francois LE, Maas EW. 1992. Analysis of main-spike yield components in salt-stressed wheat. Crop Sci 32, 697–703.

Gulnaz A, Iqbal J, Azam F. 1999. Seed treatment with growth regulators and crop productivity. II. Response of critical growth stages of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under salinity stress. Cereal Research Communications 419-426.

Hasanuzzaman M, Nahar K, Fujita M. 2013. Plant response to salt stress and role of exogenous protectants to mitigate salt-induced damages. In Ecophysiology and responses of plants under salt stress (pp. 25-87). Springer New York.

Hussain K, Majeed A, Nawaz K, Nisar MF. 2010. Changes in morphological attributes of maize (Zea mays L.) under NaCl salinity. American Eurasian Journal of Agricultural Environmental Science 8(2), 230-232.

Iqbal M, Ashraf M. 2007. Seed Treatment with Auxins Modulates Growth and Ion Partitioning in Salt‐stressed Wheat Plants. Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 49(7), 1003-1015.

Iqbal M, Ashraf M. 2013. Gibberellic acid mediated induction of salt tolerance in wheat plants. growth, ionic partitioning, photosynthesis, yield and hormonal homeostasis. Environmental and Experimental Botany 86, 76-85.

Iqbal M, Ashraf M, Jamil A, UrRehman S. 2006. Does seed priming induce changes in the levels of some endogenous plant hormones in hexaploid wheat plants under salt stress. Journal of integrative plant Biology 48(2), 181-189.

Irfan A, Shahzadm AB, Amir I. 2005. The effects of seed soaking with plant growth regulators on seedling vigor of wheat under salinity stress. Journal of Stress Physiology & Biochemistry 1(1).

Ivanov II. 2009. Endogenous auxins and branching of wheat roots gaining nutrients from isolated compartments. Russian journal of plant physiology 56(2), 219-223.

Khan MA, Shirazi MU, Mukhtiar Ali, Mumtaz S, Shereen A, Ashraf MY. 2006. Comparative Performance of some wheat genotypes growing under saline water. Pakistan Journal of Botany 38(5), 1633-1639.

Kingsbury RW, Epstein E. 1984. Selection for salt-resistant spring wheat. Crop Science 24(2), 310-315.

Kondhare K, Hedden P, Kettlewell P, Farrell A, Monaghan J. 2014. “Use of the hormone-biosynthesis inhibitors fluridone and paclobutrazol to determine the effects of altered abscisic acid and gibberellin levels on prematurity α-amylase formation in wheat grains.” Journal of Cereal Science 60(1), 210-216.

Li C, Lv J, Zhao X, Ai X, Zhu X, Wang M, Xia G. 2010. TaCHP. a wheat zinc finger protein gene down-regulated by abscisic acid and salinity stress plays a positive role in stress tolerance. Plant physiology 154(1), 211-221.

Mahboob W, Khan MA, Shirazi MU. 2016. Induction of salt tolerance in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings through exogenous application of proline. Pakistan Journal of Botany 48(3), 861-867.

Manjili FA, Sedghi M, Pessarakli M. 2012. Effects of phytohormones on proline content and antioxidant enzymes of various wheat cultivars under salinity stress. Journal of plant nutrition 35(7), 1098-1111.

Mehta P, Jajoo A, Mathur S, Bharti S. 2010. Chlorophyll a fluorescence study revealing effects of high salt stress on photosystem II in wheat leaves. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 48(1), 16-20.

Miura K, Tada Y. 2014. Regulation of water, salinity, and cold stress responses by salicylic acid. Frontiers in plant science, 5.

Møller IM. 2001. Plant mitochondria and oxidative stress. electron transport, NADPH turnover, and metabolism of reactive oxygen species. Annual Review of Plant Biology 52(1), 561-591.

Moud AM, Maghsoudi K. 2008. Salt stress effects on respiration and growth of germinated seeds of different wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars. World World Journal of Agricultural Science 4(3), 351-358.

Munns R, Schachtman DP, Condon AG. 1995. The significance of a two-phase growth response to salinity in wheat and barley. Functional Plant Biology 22(4), 561-569.

Mutlu F, Buzcuk S. 2007. Salinity induced changes of free and bound polyamine levels in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) root differing in salt tolerance. Pakistan Journal of Botany 39, 1097-1102.

Qiao L, Zhang X, Han X, Zhang L, Li X, Zhan H, Li X. 2015. A genome-wide analysis of the auxin/indole-3-acetic acid gene family in hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Frontiers in plant science 6.

Rawson HM, Richards RA, Munns R. 1988. An examination of selection criteria for salt tolerance in wheat, barley and triticale genotypes. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 39(5), 759-772.

Sairam RK, Rao KV, Srivastava GC. 2002. Differential response of wheat genotypes to long term salinity stress in relation to oxidative stress, antioxidant activity and osmolyte concentration. Plant Science 163(5), 1037-1046.

Sairam RK, Srivastava GC, Agarwal S, Meena RC. 2005. Differences in antioxidant activity in response to salinity stress in tolerant and susceptible wheat genotypes. Biologia Plantarum 49(1), 85-91.

Sairam RK, Srivastava GC, Agarwal S, Meena RC. 2005. Differences in antioxidant activity in response to salinity stress in tolerant and susceptible wheat genotypes. Biologia Plantarum 49(1), 85-91.

Sauter A, Dietz KJ, Hartung W. 2002. A possible stress physiological role of abscisic acid conjugates in root‐to‐shoot signalling. Plant, Cell & Environment 25(2), 223-228.

Shafi M, Bakht J, Khan MJ, Khan MA, Din MR. 2011. Role of abscisic acid and proline in salinity tolerance of wheat genotypes. Pakistan Journal of Botany 43, 1111-1118.

Siddiqui MH, Al-Whaibi MH, Ali HM, Sakran AM, Basalah MO, AlKhaishany MY. 2013. Mitigation of nickel stress by the exogenous application of salicylic acid and nitric oxide in wheat. Australian Journal of Crop Science 7(11), 1780.

Temel A, Gozukirmizi N. 2015. Physiological and molecular changes in barley and wheat under salinity. Applied biochemistry and biotechnology 175(6), 2950-2960.

Wahid A, Perveen M, Gelani S, Basra SM. 2007. Pretreatment of seed with H2 O2 improves salt tolerance of wheat seedlings by alleviation of oxidative damage and expression of stress proteins. Journal of Plant Physiology 164(3), 283-294.

Wang ZQ, Yuan YZ, Ou JQ, Lin QH Zhang CF. 2007. Glutamine synthetase and glutamate dehydrogenase contribute differentially to proline accumulation in leaves of wheat (Triticum aestivum) seedlings exposed to different salinity. Journal of Plant Physiology 164, 695-701.

Wanjogu SN, Muya EM, Gicheru PT, Waruru BK. 2001. Soil degradation. Management and rehabilitation in Kenya. In Proceedings of the FAO/ISCW expert consultation on Management of Degraded Soil in Southern and Eastern Africa (MADS-SEA) 2nd Networking meeting, Pretoria, South Africa PR 102-113.

Wimmer MA, Mühling KH, Läuchli A, Brown PH, Goldbach HE. 2003. The interaction between salinity and boron toxicity affects the subcellular distribution of ions and proteins in wheat leaves. Plant, Cell & Environment 26(8), 1267-1274.

Yadav S, Irfan M, Ahmad A, Hayat S. 2011. Causes of salinity and plant manifestations to salt stress. a review. Journal of Environmental Biology 32(5), 667.

Yousaf J, Shafi M, Bakht J. 2011. Effect of seed priming on growth and biochemical traits of wheat under saline conditions. African Journal of Biotechnology 10, 17127-17133.

Zhao Y, Tian X, Li Y, Zhang L, Guan P, Kou X, Ni Z. 2017. Molecular and functional characterization of wheat ARGOS genes influencing plant growth and stress tolerance. Frontiers in plant science 8.

Muzafar Iqbal, Muhammad Nadeem, Saima Jamil, Maqbool Ahmed, Tahira Altaf.
Exogenous applications of plant hormones make wheat (Triticum aestivum) withstand the attack of salinity stress.
Int. J. Biosci. 12(1), 375-385, January 2018.
Copyright © 2018
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
innspub logo
english language editing
    Publish Your Article
    Submit Your Article
Email Update