International network for natural sciences – research journal
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Effect of explants and growth regulators on the expression of Callogenesis, somatic embryogenesis and plantlets formation in Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.)

By: Muhammad Iqbal, Aamir Ali, Naima Huma Naveed, Umair A. Khan, Muhammad Nasim Ashraf Faz, Muhammad Imran, Danish Ashfaq, Mubashir Hussain

Key Words: Tissue culture; 2, 4-D, Benzyl 6-amino purine, Callus, Somatic Embryos, Plant regeneration, Pakistan

Int. J. Biosci. 9(4), 147-156, October 2016.



The present research was done to standardize a protocol for hormone treatment and to determine the best type of explants for the induction of callus, somatic embryogenesis and regeneration response in sugarcane. The potential for callogenesis and somatic embryogenesis of different explants of sugarcane was explored. The influence of different concentrations and combinations of various phytohormones along with varying environmental conditions like temperature and light on in vitro callus induction and somatic embryo formation was also studied. Among three types of explants used in present study (leaf, shoot apical meristem and pith), the maximum response of callus induction and somatic embryogenesis was obtained from leaf explants. The maximum callus induction response obtained onto MS medium containing 3 mg/l of 2, 4- D was 92% from leaf, 72% from shoot apical meristem and 50% from pith explants after 14 days of inoculation. Direct and indirect somatic embryogenesis was observed and the best response was obtained on MS medium supplemented with 3 mg/l 2, 4-D + 0.5 mg/l BAP. MS media supplemented with 4mg/l 2, 4-D+ 0.25mg/l BAP was proved to be the best for regeneration of somatic embryos, where 90% plantlets formation was observed. Thus, leaf explants must be cultured onto MS medium with 2, 4 D / BAP corresponding to 4 mg/l / 0.25 mg/l to optimize somatic embryogenesis and plantlets regeneration.


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