International network for natural sciences – research journal
  • mendeley icon
  • linkedin icon
  • google plus icon
  • twitter icon
  • google scholar icon
  • facebook icon

Eco-friendly natural dyes as sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs)

By: Ayesha Altaf, Tahira Aziz Mughal, Zafar Iqbal, Safeer Ahmad

Key Words: Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs), Titanium Dioxide nanoparticles, Open-Circuit voltage, Short-Circuit Current Density, Energy Conversion Efficiency

Int. J. Biosci. 11(6), 151-158, December 2017.


Certification: ijb 2017 0169 [Generate Certificate]


Six natural dyes D1–D6 were extracted from various parts of Hibiscus rosa sinesis, Brassica oleracea, Celosia argentea, Rosa damascena, Rosa macdub (red and yellow) by maceration with ethanol for 24 hours for dye-sensitized solar cells. Their photophysical, electrochemical and photovoltaic studies were carried out. UV-Vis absorption spectra of the dyes D1–D6 showed two distinct bands i.e. π – π* and ICT band. Out of all the extracted dyes, the dye D1 gave best absorption of ICT band at λmax 534 nm. Cyclic voltammetry of the dyes D1–D6 was carried out which revealed the distinct oxidation and reduction peaks in D1 and D2 dyes while in other dyes these peaks were weak. The photovoltaic performance of the dyes D1–D6 was also measured by making sandwich type DSSCs. Their J-V curves showed open circuit voltage values of the dyes were 0.36V, 0.37V, 0.36V, 0.34V, 0.34V, 0.39V and short circuit current density values are 5.48 mA/cm2, 5.69 mA/cm2, 1.71 mA/cm2, 3.99 mA/cm2, 2.71 mA/cm2 and 5.18 mA/cm2 respectively. The best sunlight to energy conversion efficiency was obtained from D1 dye which has better UV absorption and it gave higher short circuit current density which leads to highest efficiency. Other dyes gave the efficiency in the following order D2=0.9% > D6=0.8% > D4=0.5% > D5=0.3% > D3=0.2%.

| Views 29 |

Eco-friendly natural dyes as sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs)

Abdullah, Zhou D, Shah T, Jebran K, Ali S, Ali A, Ali A. 2017. Acceptance and willingness to pay for solar home system: survey evidence from northern area of Pakistan. Energy Reports 3, 54-60.

Ayalew WA, Ayele DW. 2016. Dye-sensitized solar cells using natural dyes as light harvesting materials extracted from Acanthus sennii chiovenda flowers and Euphorbia cotinifolia leaf. Journal of Science: Advanced Material and Devices 1, 488-494.

Calogero G, Bartolotta A, Marco GD, Carlo AD, Bonaccorso F. 2015. Vegetable-based dye sensitized solar cells. Chemical Society reviews 15, 10.1039/C4CS00309H

Calogero G, Marco GD. 2008. Red Sicilian orange and purple eggplant fruits as natural sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 92(11), 1341-1346.

Dey A, Abdul Moyez SK, Mandal MK, Roy S. 2016. Fabrication of solar cell using extracted biomolecules from tea leaves and hybrid perovskites. Materials Today: proceedings 3(10), 3498-3504.

Enciso P, Cerda MF. 2016. Solar cells based on the use of photosensitizers obtained from Antarctic red algae. Cold Regions Science and Technology 126, 51-54.

Ghani S, Sharif R, Shahzadi S, Zafar N, Anwar AW, Ashraf A, Zaidi AA, Kamboh AH, Bashir S. 2014. Simple and inexpensive electrodeposited silver/polyaniline composite counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells. Journal of Materials Science 50(3), 1469-1477.

Hambali NAMA, Roshidah N, Hashim MN, Mohamad IS, Saad NH, Norizan MN. 2015. Dye-sensitized solar cells using natural dyes as sensitizers from Malaysia local fruit ‘Buah Mertajam’. AIP Conference Proceedings 1660, 0700501-7


Hao S, Wu J, Huang Y, Lin J. 2016. Natural dyes as photosensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells. Solar Energy 80, 209-214. r.2005.05.009

Hernandez-Martinez AR, Estevez M, Vargas S, Rodriguez R. 2013. Stabilized conversion efficiency and dye-sensitized solar cells from Beta vulgaris pigment. International Journal of Molecular Science 14, 4081-4093.

Hoffert MI, Caldeira K, Jain AK, Haites EF, Harvey LDD, Potter SD, Schlesinger ME, Schneider SH, Watts RG, Wigley TM, Wuebbles DJ. 1998. Energy implication of future stabilization of atmospheric CO2 contents. Nature 395–884.

DOI: 10.1038/27638

Karakus MO, Koca I, Er O, Cetin H. 2017. Dye ingredients and energy conversion efficiency at natural dye sensitized solar cells. Optical Materials 66, 552-558.

Kartini I, Dwitatsari L, Wahyuningsih TD, Chotima C, Wang L. 2015. The sensitization of Xanthophylls-chlorophyll mixtures on titania solar cells, International Journal of Science and Engineering 8(2), 109-114. /ijse.8.2.109-114

Kavitha S, Praveena K, Lakshmi M. 2017. A new method to evaluate the feasibility of a dye in DSSC application. International Journal of Energy Research 41, 2173-2183.

Kim H, Bin Y, Karthick SN, Hemalatha KV, Raj JC, Venkatesan S, Park S, Vijayakumar G. 2013. Natural dye extracts from Rhododendron species flowers as a photosensitizer in dye sensitized solar cells. International Journal of Electrochemical Science 8, 6734-6743.

Lim A, Manaf NH, Tennakoon K, Chandrakanthi RLN, Lim LBL, Bandara JMRS, Ekanayake P. 2015. Higher performance of DSSC with dyes from Cladophora sp. As mixed cosensitizer through synergistic effect. Journal of Biophysics 2015, 1-8. /2015/510467Liu H, Jiang GM, Zhuang HY, Wang KJ. 2008. Distribution, utilization structure and potential of biomass resources in rural China: with special reference of crop residues. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 12, 1402–1418.http:// doi:10.1016/j.rser.2007.01.011

Narayan MR. 2012. Review: Dye sensitized solar cells based on natural photosensitizers. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 16, 208-215.

Nazeeruddin MK, Baranoff E, Gratzel M. 2011. Dye sensitized solar cells: A brief overview. Solar Energy 85, 1172-1178. er.2011.01.018

O’Regan B, Gratzel M. 1991. A low-cost, high-efficiency solar cell based on dye-sensitized colloidal TiO2 films. Nature 353, 737-740. 10.1038 /353737a0

Parida B, Iniyan S, Goic R. 2011. A review of solar photovoltaic technologies. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 15, 1625-1636.


Pekka P. 2013. From Malthus to sustainable energy–Theoretical orientations to reforming the energy sector. Renewable and Sustainable [J]. Energy Reviews 19, 309-327. j.rser.2012.11.025

Rosana NT. 2015. Pigments for generating electric power-an overview. Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Science 6(1), 691-698.

Safie NE, Ludin NA, Hamid NH, Sepeai S, Teridi MAM, Ibrahim MA, Sopian K, Arakawa H. 2017. Energy levels of natural sensitizers extracted from rengas (Gluta spp.) and mengkulang (Heritiera elata) wood for dye-sensitized solar cells. Materials for Renewable and Sustainable Energy 6, 9227-9243.

Senthil TS, Muthukumarasamy N, Kang M. 2014. ZnO nanorods based dye sensitized solar cells sensitized using natural dyes extracted from beetroot, rose and strawberry. Bulletin of Korean Chemical Society 35, 1050-1056. /bkcs.2014.35.4.1050

Shahid M, Mohammad F, Islam SU. 2013. Recent advancements in natural dye applications: a review. Journal of Cleaner Production 53, 310-331.

Vargas FD, Jimenez AR, Lopez OP. 2000. Natural pigments; carotenoids, anthocyanins and betalains-characteristics, biosynthesis, processing and stability. Critical Review of Food Science and Nutrition 40, 173-289. /10408690091189257

Wakeel M, Chen B, Jahangir S. 2016. Overview of energy portfolio in Pakistan. Energy Procedia 88, 71-75.

Zhang D, Lanier J, Downing J, Avent L, Lume J, Mchale J. 2008. Betalain pigments for dye-sensitized solar cells. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry 195(1), 72-80.

https://doi 10.1016/j.jphotochem.2007.07.038

Ayesha Altaf, Tahira Aziz Mughal, Zafar Iqbal, Safeer Ahmad.
Eco-friendly natural dyes as sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs).
Int. J. Biosci. 11(6), 151-158, December 2017.
Copyright © 2017
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
innspub logo
english language editing
    Publish Your Article
    Submit Your Article
Email Update