International network for natural sciences – research journal
  • mendeley icon
  • linkedin icon
  • google plus icon
  • twitter icon
  • google scholar icon
  • facebook icon

Comparison of some Italian and Iraqi bread wheat varieties in respond to Eco-zinc application

By: Fathi Abdulkareem Omer

Key Words: Wheat varieties, Eco-zinc, Fertilizer, Growth, Yield

Int. J. Biosci. 10(1), 6-15, January 2017.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12692/ijb/10.1.6-15

Abstract

This study was carried out at the fields of Agricultural College, University of Duhok during the growing season 2015/16 to investigate the performance of four wheat varieties; Zanzibar, Nogal (new Italian varieties), Adana-99, and Al-Iraq (local varieties) in respond to eco-zinc fertilizer application (control, seed soaking in eco-zinc, foliar application of eco-zinc, and conventional NPK fertilizer) under rainfed conditions of Duhok province. The experiment was arranged in RCBD design with three replications. Both local varieties were superior in field emergence and plant height as compared to Italian varieties, whereas the Italian surpassed local varieties in most of spike characteristics and harvest index but inferior in 1000 grains weight and the later was the most effective trait in which affected grain qualities for the two new varieties. Each of Nogal (4577 kg.ha-1) and Adana-99 (4552 kg.ha-1) varieties significantly produced higher grain yield and biomass yield. Most of growth characteristics were not affected by the application of eco-zinc fertilizer while the spike density enhanced significantly (F Prob.= 0.008). The final grain yield was significant and higher when seed soaked in eco-zinc solution (4609 kg.ha-1).The two Italian were late in maturity for about 10 days from the local varieties and this was the reason for extending the grain filling period to correspond the stress of high temperatures and low moisture in May, and accordingly they are not recommended to be sown under similar conditions unless an alternative source of supplementary irrigation is available.

| Views 109 |

Comparison of some Italian and Iraqi bread wheat varieties in respond to Eco-zinc application

Arshad M, Muhammad A, Sher A, Abdul Karim K, Irshad A, Muhammad A, Azaz A, Azam K, Muhammad AK, Farhana G, Muhammad AK. 2016.Integrated effect of Phosphorus and Zinc on wheat crop. American- www.dx.doi.org/10.5829/idosi.aejaes.2016.16.3.12887.

Banziger M, Cooper M. 2001.Breeding for low input conditions and consequences for participatory plant breeding: examples from tropical maize and wheat. Euphytica 122, 503-519.

Borghi B, Cattaneo M, Corbellini M, Perenzin M. 1987. An attempt to define a new plant ideotype of bread wheat for Mediterranean conditions based on physiological studies.

Buck HT, Nisi JE, Salomon N. 2007. Wheat production in stressed environments, Proceedings of the 7th International Wheat Conference, 27 November 2 December 2005, Mar del Plata, Argentina. Developments in Plant Breeding 12.Springer, Dordrecht, the Netherlands.

Bukvic G, Antunovic M, Popovic S, Rastija M. 2003. Effect of P and Zn fertilization on biomass yield and its uptake by maize lines (Zea mays L.).J Plant and Soil Envi. 49(11), 505-510.

Cakmak I. 2008. Enrichment of cereal grains with zinc: Agronomic or genetic biofortification. Plant Soil, 302, 1-17.

Cakmak I, Pfeiffer WH, Mc Clafferty B. 2010.Biofortification of durum wheat with zinc and iron. Cereal Chem., 87, 10-20.

Carena MJ. 2009. Cereals. Handbook of plant breeding. Springer Science + Business Media, LLC.

Curtis BC, Rajaram S, Gomez MH. 2002. Bread wheat improvement and production. FAO Plant Production and Protection Series 30. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.

Eichenberger S. 2009.Dehydrin patterns in wheat leaves during severe drought and recovery. Master thesis, University of Bern, Switzerland. verified28 June2015

www.climatestudies.unibe.ch/students/theses/msc/9.pdf

El-Habbasha SF, Elham AB, Ezzat AL. 2015. Effect of Zinc foliar application on growth characteristics and grain yield of some wheat varieties under Zn deficient sandy soil condition. International Journal Chem Tech Research 8(6), 452-458.

FAO. 2009. Wheat flour, agribusiness handbook. Investment Centre Division. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.

FAO. 2010.Food Outlook – Global Market Analysis, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.

FAO. 2012.Crop prospects and food situation. Global Information and Early Warning System. Trade and Markets Division (EST). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.

Fraga CG. 2005. Relevance, essentiality and toxicity of trace elements in human health. Molecular Aspects Med., 26: 235-244.

Gen Stat. 2011. Release 10.3DE (PC/Windows) 22 January 2011 23:16:27. 10th version. Gen Stat Procedure Library Release PL18.2.

Gooding MJ, Davies WP. 1997. Wheat production and utilization, systems, quality and the environment. CAB International, Wallingford, Oxon, UK.

Habash DZ, Kehel Z, Nachit M. 2009. Genomic approaches for designing durum wheat ready for climate change with a focus on drought. Journal of Experimental Botany 60, 2805-2815.

www.dx.doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erp211.

Keram KS, Sharma BL, Sawarkar SD. 2012. Impact of Zn application on yield, quality, nutrients uptake and soil fertility in a medium deep black soil (Vertisol). International Journal of Science, Environment and Technology 1(5), 563-571.

Leonard WH, Martin JH. 1963. Cereal crops. Collier-Macmillan Canada, Toronto, Ontario.

MAWR. (Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation), Iraqi Kurdistan Region, (2015).

Mishra SP, Mohapatra PK. 1987. Soluble carbohydrates and floret fertility in wheat in relation to population density stress. Annals of Botany 60, 269-277.

Monasterio OJI, Peoa RJ, Pfeiffer WH, Hede AH. 2002. Phosphorus use   efficiency, grain yield and quality of triticale and durum wheat under irrigated conditions. Proceedings of the 5 International Triticale Symposium, Radzikow, Poland, 9-14.

Nenova VR, Kocheva KV, Petrova PI, Georgiev GI, Karceva TV, Börner A, Langjeva SP. 2014. Wheat Rht-B1 dwarfs exhibit better photosynthetic response to water deficit at seedling stage compared to the wild type. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science 200, 434-443.

OECD/FAO. 2011. OECD-FAO Agricultural Outlook (2011).

www.dx.doi.org/10.1787/agr_outlook-2011-en.

OECD/FAO. 2012. OECD-FAO Agricultural Outlook (2012).

www.dx.doi.org/10.1787/agr_outlook-2012-en.

Omer FA. 2015. Screening of some bread wheat cultivars for drought tolerance utilizing root architecture technique and chemical tests. PhD Thesis, University of Duhok, Iraqi Kurdistan Region.

Omer FA, Ahmed SK, Heinrich G. 2015. Estimation of wheat seeding rate based on fixed population density and test weight by displacement. Int. J. Agric. Pol. Res.  3(1), 39-43.

Passioura JB. 2012.Phenotyping for drought tolerance in grain crops: when is it useful to breeders? Functional Plant Biology 39, 851-859.

www.dx.doi.org/10.1071/FP12079.

Rashid A, Farmanullah K, Roshan A, Muhammad AK, Shahid HM, Ehsan E, Noman L, Sarfaraz KM. 2016.Maximizing wheat yield through foliar application of Sulfur and Zinc with and without farmyard manure. American-Eurasian J. Agric. & Environ. Sci., 16 (5): 882-887.

www.dx.doi.org/10.5829/idosi.aejaes.2016.16.5.12937.

Rebetzke GJ, Bonnett DG, Ellis MH. 2012. Combining gibberellic acid-sensitive and insensitive dwarfing genes in breeding of higher-yielding, sesquidwarf wheats. Field Crops Research 127, 17-25.

Richards RA. 1992. The effect of dwarfing genes in spring wheat in dry environments. I. Agronomic characteristics. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 43, 517-27.

Robertson LD, Lowry G. 2004. Seed quality and seed production. In: Robertson L. D., Guy S. O., Brown B. D. (Eds.), Southern Idaho dry-land winter wheat production guide, pp. 19-21. University of Idaho, Moscow, BUL 827. verified 2 July 2015.

www.cals.uidaho.edu/edcomm/pdf/BUL/BUL0827.pdf;

Saifuzzaman M, Fattah QA, Islam MS. 2008.Spikelet sterility of wheat in farmer’s field in Northwest Bangladesh. Bangladesh Journal of Botany 37, 155-160.

Salimpour S, Khavazi K, Nadian H, Besharati H, Miransari M. 2010.Enhancing phosphorous availability to canola (Brassica napus L.) using P solubilizincg and sulfur oxidizincg bacteria. Australian Journal of Crop Science, 4(5), 330-334.

Sangtarash MH. 2010. Responses of different genotypes to drought stress applied at different growth stages. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 13, 114-119.

Sharma RC, Morgounov AI, Braun HJ, Akin B, Keser M, Bedoshvili D, Bagci A, Martius C, Van Ginkel M. 2010.Identifying high yielding stable winter wheat genotypes for irrigated environments in Central and West Asia. Euphytica 171, 53–64.

Sojka RE, Stolzy LH, Fischer RA. 1981. Seasonal drought response of selected wheat cultivars. Agronomy Journal 73, 838-844.

Stapper M, Harris HC. 1989. Assessing the productivity of wheat genotypes in a Mediterranean climate, using a crop-simulation model. Field Crops Research 20, 129-152.

White PJ, Broadly MR. 2009.Biofortification of crops with seven mineral elements often lacking in human diets: Iron, zinc, copper, calcium, magnesium, selenium and iodine. New Phytologist 182, 49-84.

Yasmeen A, Basra SMA, Wahid A, Farooq M, Nouman W, Hafeez-ur-Rehman, Hussain N. 2013.Improving drought resistance in wheat (Triticum aestivum) by exogenous application of growth enhancers. International Journal of Agriculture & Biology 15, 1307-1312.

Zareian A, Hamidi A, Sadeghi H, Jazaeri MR. 2013.Effect of seed size on some germination characteristics, seedling emergence percentage and yield of three wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars in laboratory and field. Middle-East Journal of

Scientific Research 13, 1126-1131.

Zareian A, Yari L, Hasani F, Ranjbar GH. 2012. Field performance of three wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars in various seed sizes. World Applied

Sciences Journal 16, 202-206.

Fathi Abdulkareem Omer.
Comparison of some Italian and Iraqi bread wheat varieties in respond to Eco-zinc application.
Int. J. Biosci. 10(1), 6-15, January 2017.
http://www.innspub.net/ijb/comparison-of-some-italian-and-iraqi-bread-wheat-varieties-in-respond-to-eco-zinc-application/
Copyright © 2017
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
http://innspub.net
brand
innspub logo
english language editing
  • CALL FOR PAPERS
    CALL FOR PAPERS
    Publish Your Article
  • CALL FOR PAPERS
    CALL FOR PAPERS
    Submit Your Article
INNSPUB on FB
Email Update