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Assessment of genetic diversity of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) using agro-morphological characters and microsatellite markers

By: Karima Kara, Najla Mezghani, Olfa Saddoud Debbabi, Maher Madini, Malika Rached-Kanouni, M’barek Ben Naceur

Key Words: Triticum aestivum, Agro-morphological characters, SSR markers, Genetic diversity.

Int. J. Biosci. 9(4), 92-101, October 2016.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12692/ijb/9.4.92-101

Abstract

Genetic diversity of ten bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties was evaluated at the DNA level using 16 wheat microsatellites molecular markers (Simple Sequence Repeat-SSR) and 6 agro-morphological characters. SSR bands were scored across all genotypes, for presence (1) or absence (0) and transformed into 0/1 binary matrix. A pair-wise similarity matrix was generated with the software NTSYS. The Polymorphism Information Content (PIC) ranged from 0.13 to 0.70 respectively for the primer WMC 24 and WMC 50 with an average of 0.48 and 0.49 per primer pair. The similarity coefficient between cultivars ranged from 0.33 and 0.90 with an average of 0.63. Most of the genotypes showed a high degree of genetic similarity. The highest genetic distance value of 0.90 has been scored between Milan/S87230/babax and Angi-4. The lowest genetic distance value of 0.33 has been scored between Hammam1 and Attila2Pastor. Genetic similarity values between genotypes, calculated by the molecular derived data, were used to produce a dendrogram. The genotypes were clustered in four clear groups according to their origin, pedigree and in some cases to phenotypic characters similarities. The morpho-agronomical variability was analyzed using the Principal Component Analysis (PCA).The results demonstrate the utility of microsatellite markers for detecting polymorphism to estimate genetic diversity.

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