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Assessment of genetic diversity among safflower germplasm through agro-morphological traits

By: Muhammad Arif, Izhar Hussain, Malik Ashiq Rabbani, Sardar Ali, Naushad Ali, Shah Masaud Khan, Muhammad Tehseen Zaheer Tanoli, Hanif Raza

Key Words: Safflower, Genetic diversity, Correlation, Principal component analysis, Cluster analysis, SDS-PAGE.

Int. J. Biosci. 9(4), 1-11, October 2016.



The present study was conducted at NARC (National Agricultural Research Centre), Islamabad Pakistan in 2014. The experimental materials comprising of 121 safflower accessions of diverse origin including one check cultivar were evaluated for different agro-morphological traits in order to find out the extent of genetic diversity and relationships among the genotypes and to identify the promising accessions for traits of economic importance. The seed material was provided by the gene bank of PGRI (Plant Genetic Resources Institute). Significant differences were observed for majority of traits. Plant height (cm) followed by days to flowering initiation (days), days to 50% flowering (days), seeds capitulum-1, days to maturity (days), capitulum plant-1, seed yield plant-1 (g), capitulum diameter (mm), leaf length (cm), branches plant-1, leaf width (cm) and 100-seed weight (g). Correlation analysis revealed that seed yield plant-1 had high significant and positive correlation with branches plant-1, capitulum plant-1, seeds capitulum-1 and 100-seed weight. Similarly days to flowering initiation and days to 50% flowering exhibited significant but negative correlation with seed yield plant-1. Principal component analysis showed that 4 out of 12 principal components with an eigenvalue above than 1.0 considered for 74.82% of the total variance. Cluster analysis divided 121 accessions into 5 main clusters (I, II, III, IV and V), each of which having 99, 7, 1, 10 and 4 genotypes. These results could be serving as a useful resource for further characterization and preservation of the safflower germplasm.


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