International network for natural sciences – research journal
  • mendeley icon
  • linkedin icon
  • google plus icon
  • twitter icon
  • google scholar icon
  • facebook icon

The alteration in the neuromasts of the system of the lateral line of a freshwater fish “Gambusia affinis” by various xenobiotics

By: Yousria Gasmi, Jean-Pierre Denizot, Mourad Bensouilah

Key Words: Lateral line, Gambusia affinis (Poecillidae), Xenobiotics, Gentamicin, Methyl parathion, Cadmium.

Int. J. Biosci. 12(1), 279-293, January 2018.


Certification: ijb 2018 0211 [Generate Certificate]


This work aims to alter the system of the lateral line by different treatment with the ototoxic antibiotic (gentamicin), the heavy metal which is cadmium and the pesticide Methyl parathion. The description of the cells of the lateral line system in a fish exposed or not exposed to different xenobiotics. A topographical and anatomical study of mechanoreceptors in the lateral line of the head of a teleostéen Gambusia affinis was conducted before and after exposure of the latter to specific doses of Gentamicin. Photonics microscopy shows that exposure to a daily mechanoreceptor dose of 80 mg of Gentamicin for 15 days engenders a separation of the cilia from the apex of the cell. However, the various component organ areas seem to keep structural integrity. However, the observation of the ultra-structure of ciliated sensory cell specimens treated with Gentamicin shows an alteration of the cell illustrated by the loss of the cilia of the apex and those synaptic structures of the basal cytoplasm. However, afferent and efferent endings are maintained. The increase in the dose of Gentamicin causes the acceleration of the degenerative process of the ciliated cell, but stopping the treatment brings about the unleashing of a regenerative process, which reveals the reversibility of the effect of the antibiotic on the ciliated sensory cell. Mechanoreceptor’s exposure to methyl parathion and cadmium in high doses 1 mg/l and 5 µg/l for a time interval of 7 days does not cause any change in the apical part of the cell. However, different areas making up the body seem to have retained their structural integrity.

| Views 16 |

The alteration in the neuromasts of the system of the lateral line of a freshwater fish “Gambusia affinis” by various xenobiotics

Abboud JA, Coombs S. 2000. Mechanosensory based orientation to elevated prey by a benthic fish. Marine. Freshwater. Behaviour. Physiologie, 33: 261-279

Aran JM, Chappert C, Dulon D, Erre JP, Aurousseau C. 1995.Uptake of amikacinby hair cells of the guinea pig cochlea and vestibule and toxicity  Comparisons with gentamicin. Hearing Research 82, 179-183. 5955(94)00175-P

Atchison GJ, Henry MG, Sandheinrich MB. 1987. Effects of metals on fish behavior: A review- Environmental Biology. Fishes. 18(1), 11-25.

Baker CF, Montgomery JC.  2001.  Sensory deficit induced by cadmium inbanded kokopu, Galaxias fasciatus, juveniles. Environmental. Biology. Fishes., 62, 455-464.

Bensouilah M, Denizot JP. 1991. Taste buds and neuromasts of Astyanax jordani distribution and immunohistochemical demonstration of co-localized substance P and enkephalins. European Journal. Neurosciences., 3:407-714.

Blaxter JHS, Batty RS. 1985. Herring behaviour in the dark: responses to stationary and continuously vibrating obstacles. Journal Marines Biological. Association, Unite Kingdom, 65, 1031-1049.

Bleckmann H. 1993. Role of the lateral line in fish behavoiur. In: Pitcher. T. J behavoiur of teleost fishes 2nd Ed, London. Chapman and hall, London, New York Tokyo: 201-46 P.

Bretaud S, Saglio P, TOUTANT JP. 2001. Effets du carbofuron sur l’activité  l’acétylcholinesterase cérébrale et sur l’activité de la nage chez Carasius auratus  (Cyprinidae).  Cybium 2001, 25(1), 33-40.

Campenhausen Von C, Reiss, Weissert R. 1981. Detection of stationary objects by the blind cave fish Anoptichthys jordani (Characidae). Journal Comparative. Physiologya. 143, 369-374

Cattani O, Serra R, Isani G, Raggi G, Cortesi P, Carpene E. 1996. Correlation between metallothionein and energy metabolism in sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, exposed to cadmium. Comparative. Biochemistry. Physiology. 113C(2), 193-199.

Coombs S, Bran CB, Donovan B. 2001. The orienting response of Lake Michigan mottled scuplin id mediated by canal neuromasts. Journal of Experimental Biology. 204, 337-348.

Dutta H, Marcelino J, Richmonds C. 1992. Brain acetylcholinesterase activity and Optomotor behavior in bluegills, Lepomis macrochirus exposed to different concentrations of diazinon. Archives. Internationales. Physiologie Biochimie Biophysique. 331-334.

Faucher K, Fichet D, Miramand P, Lagardère JP. 2006. Impact of acute cadmium exposure on the trunk lateral line neuromasts and consequences on the ‘‘C start” response behaviour of the sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.; Teleostei, Moronidae). Aquatic. Toxicology. 76, 278–294.

Faucher K, Fichet D, Miramand P, Lagardere JP. 2004. Impact of chronic cadmium exposure at environmental dose on escape behaviour in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.; Teleostei, Moronidae). Environmental Pollution, 151: 148-157.

Forge A, Schacht J. 2000.  Aminoglycoside antibiotics. Audioology Neurootolology. 5, 3-22.

Janssen J. 2000. Toxicity of Co2+:  implications for lateral line studies. Journal of Comparative Physiology. A.186, 957-960.

Kanter MJ, Coombs S. 2003. Rheostaxis and prey detection in uniform currents by Lake Michigan mottled sculpin (Cottus bairdi). Journal of Experimental Biology. 206, 59-70.

Kroese ABA, Das A, HUDSPETH AJ. 1989. Blocage of the transduction channels of hair cells in bullfrog sacculus by aminoglycoside antibiotics. Hearing Reserseach. 37, 203-218.

Kaus S. 1987. The effect of aminoglycoside antibiotics on the lateral line organs of Aplocheilus  lineatus  (Cyprinodontidae). Acta Oto laryngologica. (Stockh). 103, 291-298.

Larsson A, Bengtsson BE, Svanberg O. 1976. Some haematological and biochemical effects of Cadmium on fish, In: Lockwood APM Ed. Effects of pollutants on aquatic organisms. Societe. Experimental. Biology. Seminar. Series. 2, 35-45.

Lemaire-Gony S, Lemaire P, PUSFORD AL. 1995. Effects of cadmium and benzo(a)pyrene on the immune system, gill ATPase and EROD activity of European sea bass Dicentrarchus  labrax. Aquatic. Toxicology. 31, 297-313.

Li I, Nevill G, Forge A. 1995. Two modes of hair cell loss from the vestibular sensory epithelia of the guinea pig. Journal of Comparative Neurology. 335, 407-417.

Mcnicol RE, Bégout-Anras ML, Scherer E. 1999. Influence of light preferences on the avoidance responses of lake whitefish, Coregonus clupeaformis, to cadmium. Environmental. Biology. Fishes. 55,   295-306.

Mcnicol RE, Scherer E, Gee JH. 1996.  Shoaling enhances cadmium avoidance by lake whitefish, Coregonus clupeaformis. Environmental. Biology. Fishes. 47, 311-319.

Montgomery JC, Baker CF, Carton AG. 1997. The lateral line can mediate rheotaxis in fish. Nature. 389, 960–963.

Neuman ISA, Rossum Van C, Bretschneider F, Teunis PFM, Peters RC. 1991. Biomonitoring: cadmium deteriorates electro-orientation performance in catfish. Comparative. Biochemistry. Physiology. 100 C (1-2), 259-262.

Ortiz M, Lutz PL. 1995. Brain neurotransmitter changes associated with exercise and stress in a Teleost Fish (Sciaenops ocellatus). Journal Fishes. Biology., 46, 551-562

Richardson GP, Russell IJ. 1991. Cochlear cultures as a model system for studying  aminoglycoside induced ototoxicity. Hearing. Research. 53, 293-311.

Rosic N, Lomax P, Kovacevic N. 1974. The toxic and behavioural effects of a cholinesterase inhibitor in fish (Serranus scriba). Comparative. General. Pharmacology. 5, 187-189.

Saglio P, Trijasse S,  Azam D. 1996. Behavioral effects of waterborne carbofuran in goldfish. Archives. Environmental. Contamination. Toxicology. 31, 232 -238.

Sand O. 1975.  Effects of different ionic environements on the mechano-sensitivity of lateral line organs in the mudpuppy. Journal of Comparative. Physiology 102. 27-42

Schemmel C. 1963.  Vergleichende Untersuchungen an den Haut sinnes organen ober und unterirdisch lebender Astyanax formen. Zeitschrift . Morphologie . DerTiere. 61, 255-316.

Sloman  KA, Baker DW, HO CG, Mcdonald DG, Wood CM. 2003A. The effects of trace metal exposure on agonistic encounters in juvenile rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Aquatic Toxicology. 63, 187-196.

Sloman KA, Scott GR, Diao Z, Rouleau C, Wood CM, Mcdonald DG. 2003B. Cadmium affects the social behaviour of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Aquatic. Toxicology. 65, 171-185.

Song J, Yan HY, Popper AN. 1995. Damage and recovery of hair cells in fish canal (but not superficial) neuromasts after gentamicin exposure. Hearing. Research. 91, 63-71.

Tanyeri  HT, Lopez I,  Honrubia V. 1995.  Histological evidence for hair cell regeneration after ototoxic cell destruction with local application of gentamicin in the Chinchilla crista ampularia. Hearing Research. 89, 194-202.

Tilton SC, Foran CM, Beson WH. 2003. Effects of cadmium on the reproductive axis of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). Comparative Biochemistry. Physiology. Party C. 136, 265-276.

Tophon S, Kruatrachue M, Upatham ES, Pokethitiyook P, Sahaphong S, Jaritkhuan S. 2003. Histopathological alterations of white seabass, Lates calcarifer, in acute and subchronic cadmium exposure. Environmental Pollution. 121, 307-320.

Trump  BF, Smuckler EA, Benditt  EP. 1961. A method for staining epoxy sections for light microscopy. Journal of Ultrastructure Research 5, 343-348.

Verhaar HM, Van Lecuwen CJ, Hermens JLM. 1992. Classifying environmental pollutants chemosphere 25, 471-491

Waldichuk M. 1979. The assessment of the sublethal effects of pollutants in the sea .Review of the problem. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lon. B. 286, 399-424.

Williams JA,  Holder N. 2000. Cell turnover in neuromasts of Zebra fish larvae .Hearing Research. 143, 171-181.

Wilson C. 1998. Cost and policy implications of agricultural pollution with special reference to pesticides, PhD Thesis, Department of Economics. University of St Andrews Repository  Scotland, U.K.

Yorulmazlar E, Gül A. 2003. Investigation of acute toxicity of cadmium sulfate (CdSO4. H2O) and behavioral changes of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus Val. 1844). Chemosphere. 53, 1005-1010.

Zinkl JG, Lockhart WL, Kenny SA, Ward FJ. 1991. The effects of cholinesterase inhibiting insecticides on fish. In: Cholinesterase-Inhibiting Insecticides Mineau P. Ed., Elsevier, 233-254.

Yousria Gasmi, Jean-Pierre Denizot, Mourad Bensouilah.
The alteration in the neuromasts of the system of the lateral line of a freshwater fish “Gambusia affinis” by various xenobiotics.
Int. J. Biosci. 12(1), 279-293, January 2018.
Copyright © 2018
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
innspub logo
english language editing
    Publish Your Article
    Submit Your Article
Email Update