International network for natural sciences – research journal
  • mendeley icon
  • linkedin icon
  • google plus icon
  • twitter icon
  • google scholar icon
  • facebook icon

Effects of sulphur and chlorine on photosynthetic parameters, antioxidant enzyme activities and yield in fresh corn grown under field conditions

By: Tinashe Zenda, Songtao Liu, Daxuan Yao, Yunting Liu, Huijun Duan

Key Words: Photosynthetic rate, Antioxidant enzyme, Yield, Fresh corn, Sulphur

Int. J. Agron. Agri. Res. 11(6), 32-45, December 2017.

Certification: ijaar 2017 0057 [Generate Certificate]


Sulphur (S) and chlorine (Cl) roles in plant physiology, abiotic stress tolerance, yield and quality improvements in different crop species have been widely acknowledged. Despite all this however, their influences in fresh corn still remain largely unreported. In the current study, therefore, an integrated field-and-lab experiments approach was used to investigate S (38 kg ha-1) and Cl (84 kg ha-1) effects on photosynthetic parameters [photosynthetic rate (Pn), transpiration rate (Tr), leaf stomatal conductance (gs), leaf chlorophyll (lc) and protein (lp) contents], antioxidant enzyme (SOD and POD) activities and level of lipid peroxidation (MDA content) at different (56, 70, and 85 DAS) growth stages; as well as the total fresh ear yield (kg ha-1) in three fresh corn cultivars (TDN21, JKN2000 and JKN928) grown under field conditions. Results showed that S significantly (P≤0.05) increased Pn, lc and lp in all cultivars, particularly at 56 DAS. Additionally, S significantly enhanced SOD and POD activities, simultaneously decreasing MDA content, prominently from 70 DAS to 85 DAS period in all three cultivars. On the other hand, Clwas mainly prominent in increasing chlorophyll content, particularly in TDN21 and JKN928 at 70 DAS and 85 DAS, whilst showing a tendency to increase MDA content. Further, S significantly increased total fresh ear yield in fresh corn cultivars by 6.58% to 18.12%, whereas Cl influence was not significant. We conclude that sulphur confers antioxidative and physiological functions against general abiotic stress, contributing to yield improvement in fresh corn grown under field conditions.

| Views 29 |

Effects of sulphur and chlorine on photosynthetic parameters, antioxidant enzyme activities and yield in fresh corn grown under field conditions

Ali A, Iqbal Z, Hassan SW, Yasin M, Khaliq T, Ahmed S. 2013. Effect of nitrogen and sulphur on phenology, growth and yield parameters of maize crop. Science Internatinal (Lahore) 25(2), 363-366.

Anjum NA, Gill SS, Umar S, Ahmad I, Duarte AC, Pereira E. 2012, Improving Growth and Productivity of Oleiferous brassicas Under Changing Environment: Significance of Nitrogen and Sulphur Nutrition, and Underlying Mechanisms. The Scientific World Journal Volume 2012. Article ID 657808, 12 pages.

Astolfi S, Zuchi S. 2013. Adequate sulfur supply protects barley plants from adverse effects of salinity stress by increasing thiol contents. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum 35(1), 175-181.

Biocyclopedia. 2012. Chlorine Functions in Plants. Plant Nutrition. Available online at Biocyclopedia. com. (Accessed 23 August 2017).

Bouranis DL, Chorianopoulou  SN, Siyiannis VF, Protonotarios VE, Koufos C, Maniou P. 2012. Changes in nutrient allocation between roots and shoots of young maize plants during sulphate deprivation. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science 175, 499-510.

Bradford MM. 1976.A rapid and sensitive method for the quantification of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Analytical Biochemistry 72, 248-254.

Channabasamma A, Habsur NS, Bangaremma SW, Akshaya MC. 2013. Effect of Nitrogen and Sulphur Levels and Ratios on Growth and Yield of Maize, Molecular Plant Breeding 4(37), 292-296.

Chapagain BP, Wiesman Z, Zaccai M, Imas P, Magen H. 2003. Potassium chloride enhances fruit appearance and improves quality of fertigated greenhouse tomato as compared to potassium nitrate. Journal of Plant Nutrition 26(3), 643-658.

Coleman WJ, Govindjee, Gutowsky HS. 1987. The location of the chloride binding sites in the oxygen evolving complex of spinach photosystem II. Biochimica et BiophysicaActa 894, 453-459.

Dash AK, Singh HK, Mahakud T, Pradhan KC, Jena D. 2015. Interaction Effect of Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium with Sulphur, Boron and Zinc on Yield and Nutrient Uptake by Rice Under Rice – Rice Cropping System in Inceptisol of Coastal Odisha. International Research Journal of Agricultural Science and Soil Science 5(1), 14-21.

Edis R, Norton R. 2012. Sulphur nutrition and fluid fertilisers, 2012 Victorian Liquid Fertiliser Forum. Available online at (Accessed 5 May 2017).

Engel RE, Bruckner PL, Mathre DE, Brumfield SKZ. 1997. A chloride-deficient leaf spot syndrome of wheat. Soil Science Society of America Journal 61,176-184.

Fixen PE. 1993. Crop responses to chloride. Advances in  Agronomy50, 107-150.

Ge T, Sui F, Bai L, Lu Y, Zhou G. 2006. Effects of Water Stress on the Protective Enzyme Activities and Lipid Peroxidation in roots and Leaves of Summer Maize. Agricultural Sciences in China 5 (4),291-298.

Gill SS, Tuteja N. 2010.Reactive oxygen species and antioxidant machinery in abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 48, 909-930.

Giordano M, Raven JA. 2014. Nitrogen and Sulfur assimilation in plants and algae. Aquatic Botany 118, 45-61.

Guo TR, Zhang GP, Zhang YH. 2007. Physiological changes in barley plants under combined toxicity of aluminium, copper and cadmium. Colloids Surfaces B: Biointerfaces57 (2), 182-188.

HARSCO. 2015. ‘Sustainable Management of Greens and Tees Under Abiotic Stress’, cross over- from soil to plant, Product Information Bulletin, Florida, USA. Available online at (Accessed 26 April 2017).

Jamal A, Fazil IS, Ahmad S, Abdin MZ. 2006. Interactive Effect of Nitrogen and Sulphur on Yield and Quality of Groundnut (Arachis hypogea L.). Korean Journal of Crop Sciences 51(6), 519-522.

Jamal A, Fazil IS, Ahmad S, Abdin MZ, Song JY. 2005. Effect of sulphur and nitrogen application on growth characteristics, seed and oil yields of soybean cultivars.  Korean Journal of Crop Sciences 50(5), 340-345.

Jamal A, Moon Y, Abdin MZ. 2010. Sulphur- A general overview and interaction with nitrogen, Australian Journal of Crop Science 4(7), 523-529.

Jarvan M, Edesi L, Adamson A, Lukme L, Akk A. 2008. The effect of sulphur fertilization on yield, quality of protein and baking properties of winter wheat. Agronomy Research 6(2), 459–469.

Khan NA, Khan MIR, Asgher M, Fatma M, Masood A, Syeed S. 2014. Salinity tolerance in plants: Revisiting the role of sulfur metabolites. Journal of Plant Biochemistry and Physiology 2 (120).

Kopriva S, Koprivova A. 2005. Sulphate assimilation and glutathione synthesis in C4 plants. Photosynthesis Research 86(3), 363-372.

Kopriva S, Calderwood A, Weckopp SC, Koprivova A. 2015. Plant sulphur and Big Data. Plant Science 241, 1-10.

Liu C, Dong S, Hu C. 2004. Effects of sulphur application amount on yield and physiological characteristics in high yield summer maize. Journal of Maize Sciences 12, 95-97.

Lovett GM, Likens GE, Buso DC, Driscoll CT, Bailey SW. 2005. The biogeochemistry of chlorine at Hubbard Brook, New Hampshire, USA. Biogeochemistry 72, 191–232.

Marschner P. 2012. Mineral Nutrition of Higher Plants, 3rd Edition, Elsevier, New York.

Mazid M, Khan ZH, Quddusi S, Khan TA, Mohammad F. 2011a. Significance of sulphur nutrition against metal induced oxidative stress in plants. Journal of Stress Physiology & Biochemistry 7 (3), 165-184.

Mazid M, Khan TA, Mohammad F. 2011b. Role of secondary metabolites in defense mechanisms of plants. Biology and Medicine 3 (2) Special Issue: 232-249.

Najeeb S, Sheikh FA, Ahangar MA, Teli NA. 2011. Popularization of Sweet corn (Zea mays L. saccharata) Under Temperate Conditions to Boost the Socioeconomic Conditions. Maize Genetics Cooperation Newsletter 85, 54-59.

Nazar R, Iqbal N, Masood A, Syeed S, Khan NA. 2011. Understanding the significance of sulphur in improving salinity tolerance in plants. Environmental and Experimental Botany 70(2-3), 80-87.

Nikiforova VJ, Gakiere B, Kempa S, Adamik M, Willmitzer L, Hesse H, Hoefgen R. 2004. Towards dissecting nutrient metabolism in plants: a systems biology case study on sulphur metabolism. Journal of Experimental Botany 55(404), 1861–1870.

Ohkama-Ohtsu N, Wasaki J. 2010. Recent Progress in Plant Nutrition, Research: Cross-Talk Between Nutrients, Plant Physiology and Soil Microorganisms. Plant and Cell Physiology 51(8), 1255-1264.

Ortiz R, Fernandez M, Dixon J, Hellin J,

Iwanaga M. 2007. Speciality maize: Global horticultural crop, Chronica Horticulturae 47(4), 20-25.

Prochazkova D, Sairam RK, Srivastava GC, Singh DV. 2001. Oxidase stress and antioxidant activity as the basis of senescence in maize leaves. Plant Science 161(4), 765-771.

Rais L, Masood A, Inam A, Khan N. 2013. Sulfur and Nitrogen Co-ordinately Improve Photosynthetic Efficiency, Growth and Proline Accumulation in Two Cultivars of Mustard Under Salt Stress. Journal of Plant Biochemistry and Physiology 1(1).

Rasool FU, Hassan B, Jahangir A. 2013. Growth and yield of sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) as influenced by nitrogen, sulphur and farmyard manure under temperate conditions. SAARC Journal of Agriculture 11(1), 81-89.

Saha B, Saha S, Saha R, Hazra GC, Mandal B. 2015. Influence of Zn, B and S on the yield and quality of groundnut (Arachis Hypogea L.). Legume Research 38 (6), 832-836.

Sahota TS. 2012. Importance of Sulphur in Crop Production. Ontario Farmer 46(29), Page B19 and Northwest Link, 11-12.

Scherer HW. 2001. Sulphur in crop production- invited paper. European Journal of Agronomy 14, 81-111.

Stall WM, Waters L, Davis DW, Rosen C, Clough GH. 2008. Sweet Corn Production, National Corn Handbook (NCH-43), Purdue University, Cooperative Extension Service of Purdue University, West Lafayette, State of Indiana, USA.

Tiwari KN, Gupta BR. 2006. Sulphur for

Sustainable High Yield Agriculture in Uttah Pradesh, Indian Journal of Fertilizers 1(11), 37-52.

Worrajinda J, Lertrat K, Suriharn B. 2013. Combining ability of super sweet corn inbred lines with different ear sizes for ear number and whole ear weight. SABRAO Journal of Breeding and Genetics 45 (3), 468-477.

Xie RZ, Dong ST, Hu CH, Wang KJ. 2003. The role of nitrogen and sulphur interaction in maize quality (Zea mays L.). Agricultural Sciences in China 2(5), 527-532.

Xu G, Magen H, Tarchitzky J, Kafkaf U. 1999. Advances in chloride nutrition of plants. Advanced Agronomy 68, 97-150.

Zenda T, Yao D, Duan H. 2017. Sulphur and Chlorine Effects on Yield and Quality in Fresh Corn. International Journal of Plant & Soil Science 18(1), 1-10.

Zhang XZ. 1992. Crop Physiology Research Method, China Agriculture Press, Beijing, 131-207.

Zhu M, Li K, Li F, Shi Z. 2014. Correlation between the lignin content and mechanical properties of waxy corn pericarp, ScientiaHorticulturae179, 266-270.

Tinashe Zenda, Songtao Liu, Daxuan Yao, Yunting Liu, Huijun Duan.
Effects of sulphur and chlorine on photosynthetic parameters, antioxidant enzyme activities and yield in fresh corn grown under field conditions.
Int. J. Agron. Agri. Res. 11(6), 32-45, December 2017.
Copyright © 2017
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
innspub logo
english language editing
    Publish Your Article
    Submit Your Article
Email Update